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Antioxidants 2017, 6(2), 31; doi:10.3390/antiox6020031

Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Properties in Bark, Flower, Inner Skin, Kernel and Leaf Extracts of Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc

1
Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima city, Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan
2
Process Chemistry and Technology Department, CSIR-Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, Lucknow 226015, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Segura-Carretero and Elena Alañon
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 28 April 2017 / Accepted: 29 April 2017 / Published: 5 May 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phenolic Compounds)
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Abstract

In this study, different plant parts (barks, flowers, inner skins, kernels and leaves) of Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut) were analyzed for total phenolic, flavonoid, and tannin contents. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2′-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS), reducing power, and β-carotene bleaching methods. The highest total phenolic and tannin contents were found in the inner skins (1034 ± 7.21 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract and 253.89 ± 5.59 mg catechin equivalent/g extract, respectively). The maximum total flavonoid content was observed in the flowers (147.41 ± 1.61 mg rutin equivalent/g extract). The inner skins showed the strongest antioxidant activities in all evaluated assays. Thirteen phenolic acids and eight flavonoids were detected and quantified for the first time. Major phenolic acids were gallic, ellagic, sinapic, and p-coumaric acids, while the principal flavonoids were myricetin and isoquercitrin. The inner skin extract was further fractionated by column chromatography to yield four fractions, of which fraction F3 exhibited the most remarkable DPPH scavenging capacity. These results suggest that C. crenata provides promising antioxidant capacities, and is a potential natural preservative agent in food and pharmaceutical industries. View Full-Text
Keywords: Castanea crenata; inner skins; phenolics; flavonoids; column chromatography; ellagic acid; myricetin Castanea crenata; inner skins; phenolics; flavonoids; column chromatography; ellagic acid; myricetin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tuyen, P.T.; Xuan, T.D.; Khang, D.T.; Ahmad, A.; Quan, N.V.; Tu Anh, T.T.; Anh, L.H.; Minh, T.N. Phenolic Compositions and Antioxidant Properties in Bark, Flower, Inner Skin, Kernel and Leaf Extracts of Castanea crenata Sieb. et Zucc. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 31.

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