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Antioxidants 2017, 6(1), 11; doi:10.3390/antiox6010011

In Vitro Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Fruits Extracts from Aceh, Indonesia

Institute of Nutrition, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Dornburger Straße 25-29, Jena 07743, Germany
Faculty of Education, Almuslim University, Jalan Almuslim No. 1, Bireun, Aceh 24261, Indonesia
Department of Engineering Physics, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember Surabaya (ITS), Campus ITS Sukolilo, Surabaya 60111, Indonesia
Department of Dermatology, University Medical Center Jena, Erfurter Straße 35, Jena 07743, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stanley Omaye
Received: 30 November 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 3 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers 2016)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1501 KB, uploaded 3 February 2017]   |  


This study reports in vitro lipophilic antioxidant, inhibition of α-amylase and antibacterial activities of extracts of peel and pulp of citrus samples from Aceh, Indonesia. HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography), phytochemical, and FTIR (fourier transform infrared) analysis detected carotenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids and terpenoids, contributing to the biological potencies. Most peel and pulp extracts contained lutein and lower concentrations of zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene and β-cryptoxanthin. The extracts also contained flavanone glycosides (hesperidin, naringin and neohesperidin), flavonol (quercetin) and polymethoxylated flavones (sinensetin, tangeretin). L-TEAC (lipophilic trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity) test determined for peel extracts higher antioxidant capacity compared to pulp extracts. All extracts presented α-amylase inhibitory activity, pulp extracts showing stronger inhibitory activity compared to peel extracts. All extracts inhibited the growth of both gram (+) and gram (−) bacteria, with peel and pulp extracts of makin showing the strongest inhibitory activity. Therefore, local citrus species from Aceh are potential sources of beneficial compounds with possible health preventive effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: carotenoids; flavonoids; phenolic acids; L-TEAC; α-amylase; Microplate Laser Nephelometry carotenoids; flavonoids; phenolic acids; L-TEAC; α-amylase; Microplate Laser Nephelometry

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Ernawita; Wahyuono, R.A.; Hesse, J.; Hipler, U.-C.; Elsner, P.; Böhm, V. In Vitro Lipophilic Antioxidant Capacity, Antidiabetic and Antibacterial Activity of Citrus Fruits Extracts from Aceh, Indonesia. Antioxidants 2017, 6, 11.

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