Next Article in Journal
The Mediterranean Lifestyle as a Non-Pharmacological and Natural Antioxidant for Healthy Aging
Next Article in Special Issue
Antioxidant White Grape Seed Phenolics: Pressurized Liquid Extracts from Different Varieties
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Antioxidants 2015, 4(4), 699-718; doi:10.3390/antiox4040699

Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions for Recovery of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) Skin Waste

School of Environmental and Life Sciences, University of Newcastle, Ourimbah, NSW 2258, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Antonio Segura-Carretero and David Arráez-Román
Received: 15 October 2015 / Revised: 24 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 12 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analytical Determination of Polyphenols)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1785 KB, uploaded 12 November 2015]   |  

Abstract

The macadamia is native to Australia and is now grown commercially around the world. Macadamia skin, known as waste, has been generated abundantly, but this ample source has had limited uses as a byproduct. The aim of this study was to develop optimal aqueous extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties from macadamia skin using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Water was selected for optimizing the extraction conditions because it is a cheap, safe, and environmentally friendly solvent. The results showed that the RSM models were reliable for the prediction and evaluation of the tested variables. Within the tested ranges, temperature (°C), time (min), and sample-to-solvent ratio (g/100 mL), and their interactions, did not significantly affect phenolic compound (TPC), flavonoid, proanthocyanidin, CUPRAC, and FRAP contents. However, the time and the sample-to-solvent ratio significantly affected DPPH antioxidant activity and the ratio significantly affected ABTS antioxidant capacity. The optimal extraction conditions for the recovery of phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties were predicted and validated at a temperature of 90 °C, a time of 20 min, and a sample-to-solvent ratio of 5 g/100 mL. At these conditions, an extract with TPC of 86 mg GAE/g, flavonoids of 30 mg RUE/g, and proanthocyanidins of 97 mg CAE/g could be prepared with potent antioxidant capacity. View Full-Text
Keywords: macadamia; waste; optimization; response surface methodology macadamia; waste; optimization; response surface methodology
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Dailey, A.; Vuong, Q.V. Optimization of Aqueous Extraction Conditions for Recovery of Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Properties from Macadamia (Macadamia tetraphylla) Skin Waste. Antioxidants 2015, 4, 699-718.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Antioxidants EISSN 2076-3921 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top