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Antioxidants 2015, 4(1), 82-101; doi:10.3390/antiox4010082

Antioxidant Approaches to Management of Ionizing Irradiation Injury

1,* , 2,†
Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, 5150 Centre Avenue, Rm. 533, Pittsburgh, PA 15232, USA
Department of Environmental/Occupational Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15219, USA
Department of Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA
Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Nikolai Gorbunov
Received: 5 December 2014 / Accepted: 12 January 2015 / Published: 23 January 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Redox Stress and Redox Homeostatic Response to Trauma and Injury)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [687 KB, uploaded 23 January 2015]   |  


Ionizing irradiation induces acute and chronic injury to tissues and organs. Applications of antioxidant therapies for the management of ionizing irradiation injury fall into three categories: (1) radiation counter measures against total or partial body irradiation; (2) normal tissue protection against acute organ specific ionizing irradiation injury; and (3) prevention of chronic/late radiation tissue and organ injury. The development of antioxidant therapies to ameliorate ionizing irradiation injury began with initial studies on gene therapy using Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (MnSOD) transgene approaches and evolved into applications of small molecule radiation protectors and mitigators. The understanding of the multiple steps in ionizing radiation-induced cellular, tissue, and organ injury, as well as total body effects is required to optimize the use of antioxidant therapies, and to sequence such approaches with targeted therapies for the multiple steps in the irradiation damage response. View Full-Text
Keywords: ionizing irradiation; antioxidants; oxidative stress; mitochondrial mechanisms of apoptosis ionizing irradiation; antioxidants; oxidative stress; mitochondrial mechanisms of apoptosis

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Greenberger, J.; Kagan, V.; Bayir, H.; Wipf, P.; Epperly, M. Antioxidant Approaches to Management of Ionizing Irradiation Injury. Antioxidants 2015, 4, 82-101.

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