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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(6), 64; doi:10.3390/brainsci7060064

Evaluation of Visual-Evoked Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen as a Diagnostic Marker in Multiple Sclerosis

1
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
2
Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
University of Texas at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75080, USA
4
University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
5
Department of Neurology and Neurothreapeutics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
6
Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX 75235, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Evanthia Bernitsas
Received: 31 March 2017 / Revised: 3 June 2017 / Accepted: 5 June 2017 / Published: 11 June 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathophysiology and Imaging Diagnosis of Demyelinating Disorders)
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Abstract

A multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis often relies upon clinical presentation and qualitative analysis of standard, magnetic resonance brain images. However, the accuracy of MS diagnoses can be improved by utilizing advanced brain imaging methods. We assessed the accuracy of a new neuroimaging marker, visual-evoked cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (veCMRO2), in classifying MS patients and closely age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) participants. MS patients and HCs underwent calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (cfMRI) during a visual stimulation task, diffusion tensor imaging, T1- and T2-weighted imaging, neuropsychological testing, and completed self-report questionnaires. Using resampling techniques to avoid bias and increase the generalizability of the results, we assessed the accuracy of veCMRO2 in classifying MS patients and HCs. veCMRO2 classification accuracy was also examined in the context of other evoked visuofunctional measures, white matter microstructural integrity, lesion-based measures from T2-weighted imaging, atrophy measures from T1-weighted imaging, neuropsychological tests, and self-report assays of clinical symptomology. veCMRO2 was significant and within the top 16% of measures (43 total) in classifying MS status using both within-sample (82% accuracy) and out-of-sample (77% accuracy) observations. High accuracy of veCMRO2 in classifying MS demonstrated an encouraging first step toward establishing veCMRO2 as a neurodiagnostic marker of MS. View Full-Text
Keywords: calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging; multiple sclerosis; diagnosis; visual system; metabolism calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging; multiple sclerosis; diagnosis; visual system; metabolism
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Hubbard, N.A.; Sanchez Araujo, Y.; Caballero, C.; Ouyang, M.; Turner, M.P.; Himes, L.; Faghihahmadabadi, S.; Thomas, B.P.; Hart, J.; Huang, H.; Okuda, D.T.; Rypma, B. Evaluation of Visual-Evoked Cerebral Metabolic Rate of Oxygen as a Diagnostic Marker in Multiple Sclerosis. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 64.

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