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Evaluation and Treatment of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: The Role of Neuropsychology
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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(12), 160; doi:10.3390/brainsci7120160

A Review of Chronic Pain and Cognitive, Mood, and Motor Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Complex, Comorbid, and/or Overlapping Conditions?

1
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Texas Health San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, MC 7843, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA
2
Department of Physical Therapy, University of Texas Health San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 6 October 2017 / Revised: 25 November 2017 / Accepted: 2 December 2017 / Published: 6 December 2017
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Abstract

Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is commonly encountered in clinical practice. While the cognitive ramifications of mTBI are frequently described in the literature, the impact of mTBI on emotional, sensory, and motor function is not as commonly discussed. Chronic pain is a phenomenon more prevalent among patients with mTBI compared to those with moderate or severe traumatic brain injury. Chronic pain can become a primary disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) expressed as widespread pain, and cognitive, mood, and movement dysfunction. Shared mechanisms across chronic pain conditions can account for how pain is generated and maintained in the CNS, irrespective of the underlying structural pathology. Herein, we review the impact of mTBI on cognitive, emotional, sensory, and motor domains, and the role of pain as an important confounding variable in patient recovery and dysfunction following mTBI. View Full-Text
Keywords: traumatic brain injury; concussion; pain; cognition; mood; movement traumatic brain injury; concussion; pain; cognition; mood; movement
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Grandhi, R.; Tavakoli, S.; Ortega, C.; Simmonds, M.J. A Review of Chronic Pain and Cognitive, Mood, and Motor Dysfunction Following Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Complex, Comorbid, and/or Overlapping Conditions? Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 160.

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