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A Review of the Neuropsychological Dimensions of Tourette Syndrome
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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 134; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100134

Progress in Genetic Studies of Tourette’s Syndrome

1,2
,
2,3
,
2,3
and
1,4,5,*
1
Laboratoire de Neurogénétique, Centre de Recherche, Institut Universitaire en Santé Mentale de Montréal, Montreal, QC H1N 3V2, Canada
2
Beijing Key Laboratory of Mental Disorders, Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100088, China
3
Center of Schizophrenia, Beijing Institute for Brain Disorders, Beijing 100088, China
4
Département de Psychiatrie, Faculté de Médecine, Université de Montréal, Montreal, QC H3C 3J7, Canada
5
Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2B4, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 1 August 2017 / Revised: 3 October 2017 / Accepted: 17 October 2017 / Published: 20 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cerebral Etiology and Treatment of the Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome)
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Abstract

Tourette’s Syndrome (TS) is a complex disorder characterized by repetitive, sudden, and involuntary movements or vocalizations, called tics. Tics usually appear in childhood, and their severity varies over time. In addition to frequent tics, people with TS are at risk for associated problems including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), anxiety, depression, and problems with sleep. TS occurs in most populations and ethnic groups worldwide, and it is more common in males than in females. Previous family and twin studies have shown that the majority of cases of TS are inherited. TS was previously thought to have an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. However, several decades of research have shown that this is unlikely the case. Instead TS most likely results from a variety of genetic and environmental factors, not changes in a single gene. In the past decade, there has been a rapid development of innovative genetic technologies and methodologies, as well as significant progresses in genetic studies of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we will briefly summarize previous genetic epidemiological studies of TS and related disorders. We will also review previous genetic studies based on genome-wide linkage analyses and candidate gene association studies to comment on problems of previous methodological and strategic issues. Our main purpose for this review will be to summarize the new genetic discoveries of TS based on novel genetic methods and strategies, such as genome-wide association studies (GWASs), whole exome sequencing (WES) and whole genome sequencing (WGS). We will also compare the new genetic discoveries of TS with other major psychiatric disorders in order to understand the current status of TS genetics and its relationship with other psychiatric disorders. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tourette Syndrome; gene mapping; genetic association; genetic linkage; complex trait; heritability; epigenetic; genome-wide association study; whole exome sequencing; whole genome sequencing Tourette Syndrome; gene mapping; genetic association; genetic linkage; complex trait; heritability; epigenetic; genome-wide association study; whole exome sequencing; whole genome sequencing
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Qi, Y.; Zheng, Y.; Li, Z.; Xiong, L. Progress in Genetic Studies of Tourette’s Syndrome. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 134.

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