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Brain Sci. 2017, 7(10), 130; doi:10.3390/brainsci7100130

Propofol Induces Apoptosis of Neurons but Not Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, or Neural Stem Cells in the Neonatal Mouse Hippocampus

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
2
Department of Physiology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA
3
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Basic Medical Science, Xi’an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi’an 710061, Shaanxi, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 August 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 12 October 2017 / Published: 14 October 2017
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Abstract

It has been shown that propofol can induce widespread apoptosis in neonatal mouse brains followed by long-term cognitive dysfunction. However, selective brain area and cell vulnerability to propofol remains unknown. This study was aimed to dissect toxic effect of propofol on multiple brain cells, including neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and neural stem cells (NSCs). Seven-day-old mice were intraperitoneally administrated propofol or intralipid as a vehicle control for 6 hours. To identify vulnerable cells undergoing apoptosis following propofol exposure, brain sagittal sections were co-stained with antibodies against an apoptosis marker along with neuron, astrocyte, oligodendrocyte, or NSC markers using immunofluorescence staining. The results showed widespread apoptosis in propofol-treated brains (apoptotic cells: 1.55 ± 0.04% and 0.06 ± 0.01% in propofol group and intralipid-treated control group, respectively). Apoptotic cell distribution exhibits region- and cell-specific patterns. Several brain regions (e.g., cerebral cortex and hippocampus) were more vulnerable to propofol than other brain regions. Most apoptotic cells in the hippocampus were located in the cornus ammonis 1 (CA1) subfield. These apoptotic cells were only detected in neurons and not astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or NSCs. These data demonstrate that different brain regions, subfields, and different types of neuronal cells in mice exhibit various vulnerabilities to propofol. Understanding region- and cell-specific susceptibility to propofol will help to better understand cellular contribution to developmental neurotoxicity and further develop novel therapeutic targets. View Full-Text
Keywords: propofol; apoptosis; neurons; astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; neural stem cells; selective vulnerability propofol; apoptosis; neurons; astrocytes; oligodendrocytes; neural stem cells; selective vulnerability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yan, Y.; Qiao, S.; Kikuchi, C.; Zaja, I.; Logan, S.; Jiang, C.; Arzua, T.; Bai, X. Propofol Induces Apoptosis of Neurons but Not Astrocytes, Oligodendrocytes, or Neural Stem Cells in the Neonatal Mouse Hippocampus. Brain Sci. 2017, 7, 130.

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