Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Impact of Increased Astrocyte Expression of IL-6, CCL2 or CXCL10 in Transgenic Mice on Hippocampal Synaptic Function
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Prior Binge Ethanol Exposure Potentiates the Microglial Response in a Model of Alcohol-Induced Neurodegeneration
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Brain Sci. 2016, 6(2), 18; doi:10.3390/brainsci6020018

Neuroimmunology of the Interleukins 13 and 4

1
Department of Chemical Physiology, The Scripps Research Institute, 10550 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
2
Cellular Neurobiology Laboratory, Salk Research Institute, La Jolla, CA 92037, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Donna Gruol
Received: 26 April 2016 / Revised: 1 June 2016 / Accepted: 2 June 2016 / Published: 13 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Neuroimmunology)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [442 KB, uploaded 13 June 2016]   |  

Abstract

The cytokines interleukin 13 and 4 share a common heterodimeric receptor and are important modulators of peripheral allergic reactions. Produced primarily by T-helper type 2 lymphocytes, they are typically considered as anti-inflammatory cytokines because they can downregulate the synthesis of T-helper type 1 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Their presence and role in the brain is only beginning to be investigated and the data collected so far shows that these molecules can be produced by microglial cells and possibly by neurons. Attention has so far been given to the possible role of these molecules in neurodegeneration. Both neuroprotective or neurotoxic effects have been proposed based on evidence that interleukin 13 and 4 can reduce inflammation by promoting the M2 microglia phenotype and contributing to the death of microglia M1 phenotype, or by potentiating the effects of oxidative stress on neurons during neuro-inflammation. Remarkably, the heterodimeric subunit IL-13Rα1 of their common receptor was recently demonstrated in dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area and the substantia nigra pars compacta, suggesting the possibility that both cytokines may affect the activity of these neurons regulating reward, mood, and motor coordination. In mice and man, the gene encoding for IL-13Rα1 is expressed on the X chromosome within the PARK12 region of susceptibility to Parkinson’s disease (PD). This, together with finding that IL-13Rα1 contributes to loss of dopaminergic neurons during inflammation, indicates the possibility that these cytokines may contribute to the etiology or the progression of PD. View Full-Text
Keywords: Interleukin 13; Interleukin 4; neuron; microglia; Parkinson; brain; neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; neurotoxic; neuroprotection Interleukin 13; Interleukin 4; neuron; microglia; Parkinson; brain; neurodegeneration; neuroinflammation; neurotoxic; neuroprotection
Figures

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Mori, S.; Maher, P.; Conti, B. Neuroimmunology of the Interleukins 13 and 4. Brain Sci. 2016, 6, 18.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Brain Sci. EISSN 2076-3425 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top