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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(8), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8081336

Effects and Mechanisms of Microbial Remediation of Heavy Metals in Soil: A Critical Review

1
College of Forestry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Beijing Municipal Research Institute of Environmental Protection, Beijing 100037, China
3
Planning and Design Academy of Forest Products Industry, State Forestry Administration, Beijing 100714, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 2 August 2018 / Published: 10 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Environmental Remediation)
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Abstract

The use of microbes to change the concentration of heavy metals in soil and improve the ability of plants to deal with elevated metals concentrations has significant economic and ecological benefits. This paper reviews the origins and toxic effects of heavy metal pollution in soil, and describes the heavy metal accumulation mechanisms of microbes, and compares their different bioconcentration abilities. Biosorption, which depends on the special structure of the cell wall, is found to be the primary mechanism. Furthermore, Escherichia coli are found to adsorb more heavy metals than other species. Factors influencing microbial treatment of wastewater and soil containing heavy metals include temperature, pH, and different substrates. Finally, problems in the application of microbial treatment of heavy metal contamination are considered, and possible directions for future research are discussed. View Full-Text
Keywords: microbe; soil; heavy metal; contamination; remediation microbe; soil; heavy metal; contamination; remediation
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Jin, Y.; Luan, Y.; Ning, Y.; Wang, L. Effects and Mechanisms of Microbial Remediation of Heavy Metals in Soil: A Critical Review. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 1336.

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