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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 911; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060911

Robust Template-Based Watermarking for DIBR 3D Images

School of Computing, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305701, Korea
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Received: 9 May 2018 / Revised: 27 May 2018 / Accepted: 27 May 2018 / Published: 1 June 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
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Abstract

Several depth image-based rendering (DIBR) watermarking methods have been proposed, but they have various drawbacks, such as non-blindness, low imperceptibility and vulnerability to signal or geometric distortion. This paper proposes a template-based DIBR watermarking method that overcomes the drawbacks of previous methods. The proposed method exploits two properties to resist DIBR attacks: the pixel is only moved horizontally by DIBR, and the smaller block is not distorted by DIBR. The one-dimensional (1D) discrete cosine transform (DCT) and curvelet domains are adopted to utilize these two properties. A template is inserted in the curvelet domain to restore the synchronization error caused by geometric distortion. A watermark is inserted in the 1D DCT domain to insert and detect a message from the DIBR image. Experimental results of the proposed method show high imperceptibility and robustness to various attacks, such as signal and geometric distortions. The proposed method is also robust to DIBR distortion and DIBR configuration adjustment, such as depth image preprocessing and baseline distance adjustment. View Full-Text
Keywords: depth-image-based rendering (DIBR); 3D content; curvelet transform; 1D-discrete cosine transform (1D-DCT); template watermark; DIBR watermarking depth-image-based rendering (DIBR); 3D content; curvelet transform; 1D-discrete cosine transform (1D-DCT); template watermark; DIBR watermarking
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Kim, W.-H.; Hou, J.-U.; Jang, H.-U.; Lee, H.-K. Robust Template-Based Watermarking for DIBR 3D Images. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 911.

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