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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 432; doi:https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030432

A Virtual Power Plant Architecture for the Demand-Side Management of Smart Prosumers

1
Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, Via Branze 38, 25123 Brescia, Italy
2
Department of Control and Computer Engineering and ICT for City Logistics and Enterprise Lab, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 January 2018 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 12 March 2018 / Published: 13 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Progress in Virtual Power Plant Design and Applications)
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Abstract

In this paper, we present a conceptual study on a Virtual Power Plant (VPP) architecture for the optimal management of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) owned by prosumers participating in Demand-Side Management (DSM) programs. Compared to classical VPP architectures, which aim to aggregate several DERs dispersed throughout the electrical grid, in the proposed VPP architecture the supervised physical domain is limited to single users, i.e., to single Points of Delivery (PODs) of the distribution network. The VPP architecture is based on a service-oriented approach, where multiple agents cooperate to implement the optimal management of the prosumer’s assets, by also considering different forms of Demand Response (DR) requests. The considered DR schemes range from Price-Based DRs to Event-Based DRs, covering both the normal operating functions and the emergency control requests applied in modern distribution networks. With respect to centralized approaches, in this study the control perspective is moved from the system level to the single prosumer’s level, who is allowed to independently provide flexible power profiles through the aggregation of multiple DERs. A generalized optimization model, formulated as a Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem, is also introduced. Such a model is able to compute the optimal scheduling of a prosumer’s assets by considering both DR requests and end-users’ requirements in terms of comfort levels while minimizing the costs. View Full-Text
Keywords: virtual power plant; demand-side management; energy management system; demand response; smart grid; urban energy system; distributed energy resources; multi-agent system virtual power plant; demand-side management; energy management system; demand response; smart grid; urban energy system; distributed energy resources; multi-agent system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pasetti, M.; Rinaldi, S.; Manerba, D. A Virtual Power Plant Architecture for the Demand-Side Management of Smart Prosumers. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 432.

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