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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 227; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020227

High-Frame-Rate Doppler Ultrasound Using a Repeated Transmit Sequence

1
Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
2
Lizzi Center for Biomedical Engineering, Riverside Research Institute, New York, NY 10038, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 28 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ultrafast Ultrasound Imaging)
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Abstract

The maximum detectable velocity of high-frame-rate color flow Doppler ultrasound is limited by the imaging frame rate when using coherent compounding techniques. Traditionally, high quality ultrasonic images are produced at a high frame rate via coherent compounding of steered plane wave reconstructions. However, this compounding operation results in an effective downsampling of the slow-time signal, thereby artificially reducing the frame rate. To alleviate this effect, a new transmit sequence is introduced where each transmit angle is repeated in succession. This transmit sequence allows for direct comparison between low resolution, pre-compounded frames at a short time interval in ways that are resistent to sidelobe motion. Use of this transmit sequence increases the maximum detectable velocity by a scale factor of the transmit sequence length. The performance of this new transmit sequence was evaluated using a rotating cylindrical phantom and compared with traditional methods using a 15-MHz linear array transducer. Axial velocity estimates were recorded for a range of ± 300 mm/s and compared to the known ground truth. Using these new techniques, the root mean square error was reduced from over 400 mm/s to below 50 mm/s in the high-velocity regime compared to traditional techniques. The standard deviation of the velocity estimate in the same velocity range was reduced from 250 mm/s to 30 mm/s. This result demonstrates the viability of the repeated transmit sequence methods in detecting and quantifying high-velocity flow. View Full-Text
Keywords: color flow doppler; high-frequency ultrasound; plane-wave imaging; Nyquist velocity; multirate signal processing color flow doppler; high-frequency ultrasound; plane-wave imaging; Nyquist velocity; multirate signal processing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Podkowa, A.S.; Oelze, M.L.; Ketterling, J.A. High-Frame-Rate Doppler Ultrasound Using a Repeated Transmit Sequence. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 227.

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