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Appl. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 2 (February 2018)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Ship-in-a-bottle integration technology was recently introduced to construct three-dimensional (3D) [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle Perceptual Image Hashing Using Latent Low-Rank Representation and Uniform LBP
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020317
Received: 22 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Robustness and discriminability are the two most important features of perceptual image hashing (PIH) schemes. In order to achieve a good balance between perceptual robustness and discriminability, a novel PIH algorithm is proposed by combining latent low-rank representation (LLRR) and rotation invariant uniform
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Robustness and discriminability are the two most important features of perceptual image hashing (PIH) schemes. In order to achieve a good balance between perceptual robustness and discriminability, a novel PIH algorithm is proposed by combining latent low-rank representation (LLRR) and rotation invariant uniform local binary patterns (RiuLBP). LLRR is first applied on resized original images to the principal feature matrix and to the salient feature matrix, since it can automatically extract salient features from corrupted images. Following this, Riulocal bin features are extracted from each non-overlapping block of the principal feature matrix and of the salient feature matrix, respectively. All features are concatenated and scrambled to generate final binary hash code. Experimental results show that the proposed hashing algorithm is robust against many types of distortions and attacks, such as noise addition, low-pass filtering, rotation, scaling, and JPEG compression. It outperforms other local binary patterns (LBP) based image hashing schemes in terms of perceptual robustness and discriminability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle A Multi-Usable Cloud Service Platform: A Case Study on Improved Development Pace and Efficiency
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020316
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
The case study, spanning three contexts, concerns a multi-usable cloud service platform for big data collection and analytics and how the development pace and efficiency of it has been improved by 50–75% by using the Arrowhead framework and changing development processes/practices. Furthermore, additional
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The case study, spanning three contexts, concerns a multi-usable cloud service platform for big data collection and analytics and how the development pace and efficiency of it has been improved by 50–75% by using the Arrowhead framework and changing development processes/practices. Furthermore, additional results captured during the case study are related to technology, competencies and skills, organization, management, infrastructure, and service and support. A conclusion is that when offering a complex offer such as an Industrial Product-Service System, comprising sensors, hardware, communications, software, cloud service platform, etc., it is necessary that the technology, business model, business setup, and organization all go hand in hand during the development and later operation, as all ‘components’ are required for a successful result. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Sustainable Manufacturing Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Forecast for Artificial Muscle Tremor Behavior Based on Dynamic Additional Grey Catastrophe Prediction
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020315
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 14 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Recently, bio-inspired artificial muscles based on ionic polymers have shown a bright perspective in engineering and medical research, but the inherent tremor behavior can cause instability of output response. In this paper, dynamic additional grey catastrophe prediction (DAGCP) is proposed to forecast the
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Recently, bio-inspired artificial muscles based on ionic polymers have shown a bright perspective in engineering and medical research, but the inherent tremor behavior can cause instability of output response. In this paper, dynamic additional grey catastrophe prediction (DAGCP) is proposed to forecast the occurrence time of tremor behavior, providing adequate preparation time for the suppression of the chitosan-based artificial muscles. DAGCP constructs various dimensions of time subsequence models under different starting points based on the threshold of tremor occurrence times and peak-to-peak values in unit time. Next, the appropriate subsequence is selected according to grey correlation degree and prediction accuracy, then it is updated with the newly generated values to achieve a real-time forecast of forthcoming tremor time. Compared with conventional grey catastrophe prediction (GCP), the proposed method has the following advantages: (1) the degradation of prediction accuracy caused by the immobilization of original parameters is prevented; (2) the dynamic input, real-time update and gradual forecast of time sequence are incorporated into the model. The experiment results show that the novel DAGCP can predict forthcoming tremor time earlier and more accurately than the conventional GCP. The generation mechanism of tremor behavior is illustrated as well. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Geo-Proxy-Based Site Classification for Regional Zonation of Seismic Site Effects in South Korea
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020314
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 24 February 2018
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Abstract
Seismic site effects and topographic effects related to ground motion occur during an earthquake due to site-specific geotechnical or geological characteristics, including the geological or geographical structure and the characteristics of near-surface sub-soil layers. Site-specific site effects due to geological conditions have been
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Seismic site effects and topographic effects related to ground motion occur during an earthquake due to site-specific geotechnical or geological characteristics, including the geological or geographical structure and the characteristics of near-surface sub-soil layers. Site-specific site effects due to geological conditions have been confirmed in recent earthquake events. Earthquake-induced damage has mainly occurred at accumulated soft soil layers under basins or along coasts and rivers. An alternative method has recently been proposed for evaluating regional seismic site effects and amplification factors using digital elevation models (DEM). High-quality DEMs at high resolutions may be employed to resolve finer-scale variations in topographic gradients and consequently, correlated site response parameters. Because there are many regions in South Korea lacking borehole datasets, which are insufficient for site classification only using borehole datasets, a DEM-based proxy for seismic zonation can be effective. Thus, in this study, geo-proxy-based site classification was proposed based on empirical correlations with site response parameters and conducted for regional zonation of seismic site effects to identify the amplification of characteristics in the western metropolitan areas of South Korea, depending on the site-specific geo-spatial conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Seismic Metamaterials)
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Open AccessArticle A Multi-Agent System for the Dynamic Emplacement of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020313
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 2 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
One of the main current challenges of electric vehicles (EVs) is the creation of a reliable, accessible and comfortable charging infrastructure for citizens in order to enhance demand. In this paper, a multi-agent system (MAS) is proposed to facilitate the analysis of different
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One of the main current challenges of electric vehicles (EVs) is the creation of a reliable, accessible and comfortable charging infrastructure for citizens in order to enhance demand. In this paper, a multi-agent system (MAS) is proposed to facilitate the analysis of different placement configurations for EV charging stations. The proposed MAS integrates information from heterogeneous data sources as a starting point to characterize the areas where charging stations could potentially be placed. Through a genetic algorithm, the MAS is able to analyze a large number of possible configurations, taking into account a set of criteria to be optimized. Finally, the MAS returns a configuration with the areas of the city that are considered most appropriate for the establishment of charging stations according to the specified criteria. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Multi-Agent Systems)
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Open AccessArticle Thermal Characteristics of Plastic Film Tension in Roll-to-Roll Gravure Printed Electronics
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020312
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 23 February 2018
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Abstract
In the printing section of a roll-to-roll gravure printed electronics machine, the plastic film tension is directly associated with the product quality. The temperature distribution of the plastic film in the printing section is non-uniform, because of the higher drying temperature and the
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In the printing section of a roll-to-roll gravure printed electronics machine, the plastic film tension is directly associated with the product quality. The temperature distribution of the plastic film in the printing section is non-uniform, because of the higher drying temperature and the lower room temperature. Furthermore, the drying temperature and the room temperature are not constants in industrial production. As the plastic film is sensitive to temperature, the temperature of the plastic film will affects the web tension in the printing section. In this paper, the thermal characteristics of the plastic film tension in roll-to-roll gravure printed electronics are studied in order to help to improve the product quality. First, the tension model including the factor of temperature is derived based on the law of mass conservation. Then, some simulations and experiments are carried out in order to in-depth research the effects of the drying temperature and room temperature based on the relations between system inputs and outputs. The results show that the drying temperature and room temperature have significant influences on the web tension. The research on the thermal characteristics of plastic film tension would benefit the tension control accuracy for further study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Printed Electronics 2017)
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Open AccessArticle Experimental Study on Streamwise Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Flexible, Slender Cylinder
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020311
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 16 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Laboratory tests on streamwise vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a flexible, slender cylinder were carried out in a towing tank. A cylinder model, 20 mm in diameter and 3.91 m in length, was towed horizontally to generate a uniform profile of relative velocity in
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Laboratory tests on streamwise vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of a flexible, slender cylinder were carried out in a towing tank. A cylinder model, 20 mm in diameter and 3.91 m in length, was towed horizontally to generate a uniform profile of relative velocity in calm water. The aspect ratio (length to diameter) and mass ratio (structural mass to displaced fluid mass) of the cylinder were 195.5 and 1.39, respectively. The Reynolds number was in the range of 1000–3000. The displacement amplitudes and vibration frequencies were investigated in order to examine the dynamic characteristics of the flexible cylinder undergoing streamwise VIV. Experimental results indicated that there were two detached branches in the streamwise response curve, i.e., the first excitation region (1.0 < Vr < 2.6) and the second excitation region (2.6 < Vr < 4.0). This phenomenon is similar to the streamwise VIV of an elastically-mounted rigid cylinder, except that a larger and shifted peak was observed in the second branch in this study. The cylinder’s linear orbits in the first excitation region indicated that the streamwise vibration frequency was equivalent to its transverse counterpart. However, in the second excitation region, the cylinder’s motion showed a figure-of-eight pattern, and the streamwise frequency was twice that in the transverse direction. In addition, two curve-fitted formulae of the maximum displacement amplitudes in the first and second excitation regions, versus the reduced mass-damping parameter, were proposed. This was accomplished by compiling the published streamwise VIV data and those in the present research work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Mechanical Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Post-Synthesis Activation and Relative Humidity on Adsorption Performance of ZIF-8 for Capturing Toluene from a Gas Phase in a Continuous Mode
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020310
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 11 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 22 February 2018
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Abstract
Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was used as an adsorbent for the removal of toluene in its gas phase at different relative humidity (RH). High-purity ZIF-8 with an average particle size of 0.64 µm synthesized from an aqueous solution at room temperature, and then
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Zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) was used as an adsorbent for the removal of toluene in its gas phase at different relative humidity (RH). High-purity ZIF-8 with an average particle size of 0.64 µm synthesized from an aqueous solution at room temperature, and then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Dynamic adsorption (continuous mode) experiments of toluene on ZIF-8 were studied using breakthrough curves. The effects of thermal pretreatment (activation) under dry air and N2 atmospheres on the adsorbent performances was studied. ZIF-8 activated at 300 °C for 3 h under dry air showed the highest adsorption capacity of 562.17 mg∙g−1. Furthermore, it was observed that the adsorption of toluene on ZIF-8 was significantly decreased at 80% RH. The experimental data of dynamic adsorption well fitted into the Thomas and Yan mathematical models. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Environmental Remediation)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Aligned TiO2 Nanofibers Using Electrospinning
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 309; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020309
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 13 February 2018 / Accepted: 17 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
In this work, aligned TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) were synthesized using an electrospinning technique with a two-piece Al collector. The effects of processing parameters, including the calcination temperature, applied voltage, and needle-to-Al-collector distance, were studied. The final phase of TiO2 was determined
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In this work, aligned TiO2 nanofibers (NFs) were synthesized using an electrospinning technique with a two-piece Al collector. The effects of processing parameters, including the calcination temperature, applied voltage, and needle-to-Al-collector distance, were studied. The final phase of TiO2 was determined using the calcination temperature; calcination at 500 °C resulted in the formation of anatase phase, whereas calcination at 600 °C resulted in the formation of rutile phase. In addition, with the increase of calcination temperature, the diameter of the synthesized NFs decreased owing to the sintering and coalescence of nanograins existing in individual NFs. A specially designed collector configuration resulted in the parallel alignment of TiO2 NFs. The needle-to-collector distance and applied voltages caused the change in diameter and alignment of NFs. The diameter had an inverse relation with the needle-to-collector distance, and an optimal value of applied voltage was required to achieve TiO2 NFs with the smallest diameter. Furthermore, with the increase of applied voltage, the morphology of TiO2 NFs changed from an aligned to a disordered state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences)
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Open AccessArticle Excitation of Wet Perovskite Films by Ultrasonic Vibration Improves the Device Performance
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 308; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020308
Received: 8 February 2018 / Revised: 17 February 2018 / Accepted: 19 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
In this work, a novel, facile, and low-cost mechanical post treatment technique, i.e., ultrasonic substrate vibration post treatment (SVPT) is applied on wet spun perovskite layers. The effect of varying the time of the SVPT on the characteristics of the perovskite crystals and
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In this work, a novel, facile, and low-cost mechanical post treatment technique, i.e., ultrasonic substrate vibration post treatment (SVPT) is applied on wet spun perovskite layers. The effect of varying the time of the SVPT on the characteristics of the perovskite crystals and the perovskite film is studied, in order to achieve the optimum time duration of the SVPT. Among the results, it is found that the application of only three minutes of the SVPT (for the ultrasonic vibration assembly used in this study, operated at 40 kHz) brings about significant improvement in the film coverage, and the contact between the perovskite and the m-TiO2 layers, owing to the effective penetration of the perovskite solution into the pores, leading to a superior charge transfer, and a significant increase in the device power conversion efficiency (PCE), when compared to the control device. This unprecedented effect is repeatable when applied on both single and mixed halide perovskites, putting forward a reliable and low-cost mechanical technique for the fabrication of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) in the lab and beyond, which could reduce or eliminate the tedious and expensive chemical optimization treatments, commonly used to increase the PCE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Acoustics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle From Thermal Inspection to Updating a Numerical Model of a Race Bicycle: Comparison with Structural Dynamics Approach
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 307; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020307
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 9 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Carbon fiber bicycle frames are complex-shaped structures and are prone to delaminations and difficult to inspect. The use of finite element model updating is common in structural dynamics but not so common in active thermography inspection. However, there are many advantages to using
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Carbon fiber bicycle frames are complex-shaped structures and are prone to delaminations and difficult to inspect. The use of finite element model updating is common in structural dynamics but not so common in active thermography inspection. However, there are many advantages to using thermography when inspecting bicycle frames. These include the fact that the inspection can be performed in situ, can cover large areas, and is a quantitative method. In this paper, a numerical model of a bicycle frame will be updated and optimized by the surface temperature distribution captured with pulsed thermography. These results will be compared and benchmarked against frequency response function (FRF) measurement data as a reference. The chosen temperature decay measurements to be used as reference data will be of key importance. The goal of this manuscript is to compare both measurement results and model predictabilities after performing finite element model updating with respect to accuracy and speed. Full article
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Open AccessReview Evaluation of Low-Temperature Cracking Performance of Asphalt Pavements Using Acoustic Emission: A Review
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 306; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020306
Received: 11 January 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 14 February 2018 / Published: 21 February 2018
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Abstract
Low-temperature cracking is a major form of distress that can compromise the structural integrity of asphalt pavements located in cold regions. A review of an Acoustic Emission (AE)-based approach is presented that is capable of assessing the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt binders
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Low-temperature cracking is a major form of distress that can compromise the structural integrity of asphalt pavements located in cold regions. A review of an Acoustic Emission (AE)-based approach is presented that is capable of assessing the low-temperature cracking performance of asphalt binders and asphalt pavement materials through determining their embrittlement temperatures. A review of the background and fundamental aspects of the AE-based approach with a brief overview of its application to estimate low-temperature performance of unaged, short-term, and long-term aged binders, as well as asphalt materials, is presented. The application of asphalt pavements containing recycled asphalt pavement (RAP) and recycled asphalt shingles (RAS) materials to thermal cracking assessment is also presented and discussed. Using the Felicity effect, the approach is capable of evaluating the self-healing characteristics of asphalt pavements and the effect of cooling cycles upon their fracture behavior. Using an iterative AE source location technique, the approach is also used to evaluate the efficiency of rejuvenators, which can restore aged asphalt pavements to their original crack-resistant state. Results indicate that AE allows for relatively rapid and inexpensive characterization of pavement materials and can be used towards enhancing pavement sustainability and resiliency to thermal loading. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Predicting Human Behaviour with Recurrent Neural Networks
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 305; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020305
Received: 15 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 9 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
As the average age of the urban population increases, cities must adapt to improve the quality of life of their citizens. The City4Age H2020 project is working on the early detection of the risks related to mild cognitive impairment and frailty and on
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As the average age of the urban population increases, cities must adapt to improve the quality of life of their citizens. The City4Age H2020 project is working on the early detection of the risks related to mild cognitive impairment and frailty and on providing meaningful interventions that prevent these risks. As part of the risk detection process, we have developed a multilevel conceptual model that describes the user behaviour using actions, activities, and intra- and inter-activity behaviour. Using this conceptual model, we have created a deep learning architecture based on long short-term memory networks (LSTMs) that models the inter-activity behaviour. The presented architecture offers a probabilistic model that allows us to predict the user’s next actions and to identify anomalous user behaviours. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socio-Cognitive and Affective Computing)
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Open AccessArticle The Conversion of Wollastonite to CaCO3 Considering Its Use for CCS Application as Cementitious Material
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020304
Received: 21 December 2017 / Revised: 7 February 2018 / Accepted: 8 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
The reaction of wollastonite (CaSiO3) with CO2 in the presence of aqueous solutions (H2O) and varied temperature conditions (296 K, 323 K, and 333 K) was investigated. The educts (CaSiO3) and the products (CaCO3 and SiO2) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM),
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The reaction of wollastonite (CaSiO3) with CO2 in the presence of aqueous solutions (H2O) and varied temperature conditions (296 K, 323 K, and 333 K) was investigated. The educts (CaSiO3) and the products (CaCO3 and SiO2) were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), and differential scanning calorimetry with thermogravimetry coupled with a mass spectrometer and infrared spectrometer (DSC TG/MS/IR). The reaction rate increased significantly at higher temperatures and seemed less dependent on applied pressure. It could be shown that under the defined conditions wollastonite can be applied as a cementitious material for sealing wells considering CCS applications, because after 24 h the degree of conversion from CaSiO3 to CaCO3 at 333 K was very high (>90%). As anticipated, the most likely application of wollastonite as a cementitious material in CCS would be for sealing the well after injection of CO2 in the reservoir. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Cloud Incubator Car: A Reliable Platform for Autonomous Driving
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 303; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020303
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 5 February 2018 / Accepted: 11 February 2018 / Published: 20 February 2018
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Abstract
It appears clear that the future of road transport is going through enormous changes (intelligent transport systems), the main one being the Intelligent Vehicle (IV). Automated driving requires a huge research effort in multiple technological areas: sensing, control, and driving algorithms. We present
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It appears clear that the future of road transport is going through enormous changes (intelligent transport systems), the main one being the Intelligent Vehicle (IV). Automated driving requires a huge research effort in multiple technological areas: sensing, control, and driving algorithms. We present a comprehensible and reliable platform for autonomous driving technology development as well as for testing purposes, developed in the Intelligent Vehicles Lab at the Technical University of Cartagena. We propose an open and modular architecture capable of easily integrating a wide variety of sensors and actuators which can be used for testing algorithms and control strategies. As a proof of concept, this paper presents a reliable and complete navigation application for a commercial vehicle (Renault Twizy). It comprises a complete perception system (2D LIDAR, 3D HD LIDAR, ToF cameras, Real-Time Kinematic (RTK) unit, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)), an automation of the driving elements of the vehicle (throttle, steering, brakes, and gearbox), a control system, and a decision-making system. Furthermore, two flexible and reliable algorithms are presented for carrying out global and local route planning on board autonomous vehicles. Full article
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