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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 810; doi:10.3390/app7080810

Chlorine Tolerance and Inactivation of Escherichia coli recovered from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

1
SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
2
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group, Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, South Africa
3
Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2017 / Revised: 30 July 2017 / Accepted: 1 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract

This study investigated the survival of Escherichia coli (E. coli) recovered from secondary effluents of two wastewater treatment plants in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, in the presence of different chlorine concentrations. The bacterial survival, chlorine lethal dose and inactivation kinetics at lethal doses were examined. The bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Comparison of the nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene of bacteria with known taxa in the GenBank revealed the bacterial isolates to belong to Escherichia coli. At the recommended free chlorine of 0.5 mg/L, reduction of E. coli isolates (n = 20) initial bacterial concentration of 8.35–8.75 log was within a range of 3.88–6.0 log at chlorine residuals of 0.14–0.44 mg/L after 30 min. At higher doses, a marked reduction (p < 0.05) in the viability of E. coli isolates was achieved with a greater than 7.3 log inactivation of the bacterial population. Inactivation kinetics revealed a high rate of bacterial kill over time (R2 > 0.9) at chlorine dose of 1.5 mg/L. This study indicates poor removal of bacteria at free chlorine at 0.5 mg/L and a greater efficacy of 1.5 mg/L in checking E. coli tolerance. View Full-Text
Keywords: Escherichia coli; chlorine tolerance; chlorine lethal dose; inactivation kinetics; wastewater treatment plants; public health Escherichia coli; chlorine tolerance; chlorine lethal dose; inactivation kinetics; wastewater treatment plants; public health
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Owoseni, M.C.; Olaniran, A.O.; Okoh, A.I. Chlorine Tolerance and Inactivation of Escherichia coli recovered from Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 810.

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