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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 796; doi:10.3390/app7080796

A Method for Ferulic Acid Production from Rice Bran Oil Soapstock Using a Homogenous System

1
Danang Environmental Technology Center, Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Tran Dai Nghia Road, Ngu Hanh Son Dist., Da Nang 550000, Vietnam
2
International Cooperation Department, Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment, 10 Ton That Thuyet St., Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
3
Department of Applied Chemistry, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan
4
Research Organization for University-Community Collaborations, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Nakaku, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 31 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 5 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1767 KB, uploaded 5 August 2017]   |  

Abstract

Ferulic acid (FA) is widely used as an antioxidant, e.g., as a Ultraviolet (UV) protectant in cosmetics and in various medical applications. It has been produced by the hydrolysis of γ-oryzanol found in rice bran oil soapstock. In this study, the base-catalyzed, homogenous hydrolysis of γ-oryzanol was conducted using various ratios of potassium hydroxide (KOH) to γ-oryzanol, initial concentrations of γ-oryzanol in the reaction mixture, and ratios of ethanol (EtOH) (as cosolvent)/ethyl acetate (EtOAc) (γ-oryzanol solution). Acceleration of the reaction using a planar type of ultrasound sonicator (78 and 130 kHz) at different reaction temperatures was explored. By using a heating method, the 80% yield of FA was attained at 75 °C in 4 h under homogeneous conditions (initial concentration of γ-oryzanol 12 mg/mL, the KOH/γ-oryzanol ratio (wt/wt) 10/1, and EtOH/EtOAc ratio (v/v) 5/1). With the assistance of 78 and 130 kHz irradiation, the yields reached 90%. The heating method was applied for the γ-oryzanol-containing extract prepared from rice bran oil soapstock. From soapstock, the 74.3% yield of FA was obtained, but 20% of the trans-FA in the reaction mixture was transformed into cis-form within one month. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferulic acid; γ-oryzanol; soapstock; homogeneous reaction; ultrasound-assisted hydrolysis; cis-trans isomerization ferulic acid; γ-oryzanol; soapstock; homogeneous reaction; ultrasound-assisted hydrolysis; cis-trans isomerization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Truong, H.T.; Do Van, M.; Duc Huynh, L.; Thi Nguyen, L.; Do Tuan, A.; Le Xuan Thanh, T.; Duong Phuoc, H.; Takenaka, N.; Imamura, K.; Maeda, Y. A Method for Ferulic Acid Production from Rice Bran Oil Soapstock Using a Homogenous System. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 796.

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