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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 778; doi:10.3390/app7080778

Removal of Crotamiton from Reverse Osmosis Concentrate by a TiO2/Zeolite Composite Sheet

1
The United Graduate School of Agricultural Sciences, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8566, Japan
2
Paper Industry Innovation Center of Ehime University, 127 Mendoricho Otsu, Shikokuchuo, Ehime 799-0113, Japan
3
Research Center for Environmental Quality Management, Kyoto University, 1-2 Yumihama, Otsu, Shiga 520-0811, Japan
4
Research and Education Faculty, National Sciences Cluster, Agriculture Unit, Kochi University, 200 Monobe Otsu, Nankoku, Kochi 783-8502, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 June 2017 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 31 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies)
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Abstract

Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate from wastewater reuse facilities contains concentrated emerging pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals. In this research, a paper-like composite sheet consisting of titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zeolite was synthesized, and removal of the antipruritic agent crotamiton from RO concentrate was studied using the TiO2/zeolite composite sheet. The RO concentrate was obtained from a pilot-scale municipal secondary effluent reclamation plant. Effective immobilization of the two powders in the sheet made it easy to handle and to separate the photocatalyst and adsorbent from purified water. The TiO2/zeolite composite sheet showed excellent performance for crotamiton adsorption without obvious inhibition by other components in the RO concentrate. With ultraviolet irradiation, crotamiton was simultaneously removed through adsorption and photocatalysis. The photocatalytic decomposition of crotamiton in the RO concentrate was significantly inhibited by the water matrix at high initial crotamiton concentrations, whereas rapid decomposition was achieved at low initial crotamiton concentrations. The major degradation intermediates were also adsorbed by the composite sheet. This result provides a promising method of mitigating secondary pollution caused by the harmful intermediates produced during advanced oxidation processes. The cyclic use of the HSZ-385/P25 composite sheet indicated the feasibility of continuously removing crotamiton from RO concentrate. View Full-Text
Keywords: paper-like composite sheet; zeolite; photocatalysis; reverse osmosis concentrate; pharmaceutical; inhibitory effect; intermediate paper-like composite sheet; zeolite; photocatalysis; reverse osmosis concentrate; pharmaceutical; inhibitory effect; intermediate
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiang, Q.; Fukahori, S.; Yamashita, N.; Tanaka, H.; Fujiwara, T. Removal of Crotamiton from Reverse Osmosis Concentrate by a TiO2/Zeolite Composite Sheet. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 778.

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