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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 652; doi:10.3390/app7070652

Fractal Prediction of Grouting Volume for Treating Karst Caverns along a Shield Tunneling Alignment

1
State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
2
Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration (CISSE), Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China
3
China Communications Construction Company Second Highway Consultants Co. Ltd., Wuhan 430056, China
4
Department of Civil and Construction Engineering, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn 3122, Australia
5
School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiao Tong University, Beijing 100044, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Stefano Invernizzi
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 1 June 2017 / Accepted: 8 June 2017 / Published: 25 June 2017
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3736 KB, uploaded 25 June 2017]   |  

Abstract

Karst geology is common in China, and buried karst formations are widely distributed in Guangdong province. In the process of shield tunneling, the abundant water resources present in karst caverns could lead to the potential for high water ingress, and a subsequent in situ stress change-induced stratum collapse. The development and distribution of karst caverns should therefore be identified and investigated prior to shield tunnel construction. Grouting is an efficient measure to stabilize karst caverns. The total volume of karst caverns along the shield tunneling alignment, and its relationship with the required volume of grouts, should be evaluated in the preliminary design phase. Conventionally, the total volume of karst caverns is empirically estimated based on limited geological drilling hole data; however, accurate results are rarely obtained. This study investigates the hydrogeology and engineering geology of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong province, and determines the fractal characteristics of the karst caverns along the tunnel section of Guangzhou metro line no. 9. The karst grouting coefficients (VR) were found to vary from 0.11 in the case of inadequate drilling holes to 1.1 in the case where adequate drilling holes are provided. A grouting design guideline was furthermore developed in this study for future projects in karst areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst cavern; shield tunneling; fractal theory; ground treatment karst cavern; shield tunneling; fractal theory; ground treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cheng, W.-C.; Cui, Q.-L.; Shen, J.S.-L.; Arulrajah, A.; Yuan, D.-J. Fractal Prediction of Grouting Volume for Treating Karst Caverns along a Shield Tunneling Alignment. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 652.

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