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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(3), 214; doi:10.3390/app7030214

Dielectric and Impedance Analysis on the Electrical Response of Lead-Free Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 Ceramics at High Temperature Range

1
Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior S/N, A.P. 70-360 CDMX, Mexico
2
Grupo POEMMA, ETSIS Telecomunicación, Campus Sur, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ctra. Valencia Km 7, 28031 Madrid, Spain
3
Unidad Morelia del Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Col. Ex Hacienda de San José de la Huerta, C.P. 58190 Morelia, Mexico
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: José Francisco Fernández and Fernando Rubio-Marcos
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 6 February 2017 / Accepted: 14 February 2017 / Published: 23 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Perspective on the Design of Lead-Free Piezoceramics)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [5706 KB, uploaded 23 February 2017]   |  

Abstract

Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 (x = 0.10, 0.15, 0.18) solid solutions were synthesized by the conventional solid-state method. A perovskite-type structure was determined using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. The addition of Ca2+ reduced the grain size (22.6, 17.9 and 13.3 μm, respectively) for all well-sintered ceramics (≈98%). Moreover, the stability temperature ranges for the tetragonal phase were promoted by displacing the ferroelectric-ferroelectric phase’s transition temperatures while TC was maintained (86 °C). The electrical performance of the material improved as the stoichiometric composition was positioned near the morphotropic phase boundary (x = 0.15): εr ≈ 16,500 (TC) at 1 kHz. For T > TC, a thermally activated relaxation process occurred. In addition, the bulk and grain boundary processes were responsible for the conduction mechanisms. The composition x = 0.15 showed an activation energy of Ea = 1.49 eV with a maximum conductivity of σmax = 2.48 × 10−2 S·cm−1 at 580 °C. Systematic studies at high temperature for dielectric properties were accomplished for analyzing electrical inhomogeneities associated with the grain, grain boundaries or surfaces, which are important for device design and a fundamental electrical characterization. View Full-Text
Keywords: BCTZ ceramics; dielectric response; impedance spectroscopy BCTZ ceramics; dielectric response; impedance spectroscopy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reyes-Montero, A.; Ramos-Alvarez, P.; González, A.M.; López-Juárez, R.; Villafuerte-Castrejón, M.E. Dielectric and Impedance Analysis on the Electrical Response of Lead-Free Ba1−xCaxTi0.9Zr0.1O3 Ceramics at High Temperature Range. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 214.

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