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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(2), 187; doi:10.3390/app7020187

Subcritical Water Extraction of Ursolic Acid from Hedyotis diffusa

1
Beijing Key Laboratory of Lignocellulosic Chemistry, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
2
Institute of Food and Agricultural Standardization, China National Institute of Standardization, Beijing 100191, China
3
Minister of Education Engineering Research Center of Forestry Biomass Materials and Bioenergy, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing 100083, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hidenori Otsuka
Received: 24 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 15 February 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Abstract

An efficient and environmental-friendly extraction method has been developed for extraction of ursolic acid (UA) from Hedyotis diffusa by using subcritical water extraction (SWE). The experiments were carried out at different particle sizes (20–100 mesh), extraction temperature (120–200 °C), extraction time (10–50 min), solvent/solid ratio (20–40 mL/g), and extraction pressure (0.6–3.0 MPa). Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize SWE conditions, and the maximum UA yield was 6.45 mg/g material. Optimal conditions are as follows: Particle size of 80 mesh, extraction temperature at 157 °C and a solvent/solid ratio of 30 mL/g. The model of experimental response was proved to predict the experimental results very well and demonstrated that UA yield was mainly depended on solvent/solid ratio, followed by particle size and temperature. The purified extract was analyzed by electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ESI-TOF-MS). The acquired precursor ion was m/z 455.3532, which is consistent with calculated value of UA. Furthermore, different extraction methods, including maceration extraction, heat reflux extraction, ultrasonic extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, and SWE were comparatively analyzed, which indicated that SWE was a time-saving, cost-saving and environment-friendly extraction technology for extraction of UA from Hedyotis diffusa. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hedyotis diffusa; ursolic acid (UA); subcritical water extraction (SWE); response surface methodology (RSM) Hedyotis diffusa; ursolic acid (UA); subcritical water extraction (SWE); response surface methodology (RSM)
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Xiao, S.; Xi, X.; Tang, F.; Dai, J.; Liu, J.; Lei, J.; Wang, L. Subcritical Water Extraction of Ursolic Acid from Hedyotis diffusa. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 187.

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