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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(1), 4; doi:10.3390/app7010004

Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation for the Thermal Analysis of a Compact LED Recessed Downlight with Heat Sink Design

Department of Mechatronics Engineering, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wen-Hsiang Hsieh
Received: 15 October 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
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Abstract

Light emitting diode (LED)-recessed downlighting is currently mainly used for indoor lighting of residential and commercial buildings. Maintaining a low junction temperature and increasing the lifetime and reliability of LED lighting is desirable. This study investigated designed heat sinks’ heat dissipation and capability of maintaining a low junction temperature, as well as increases in the lifetime and reliability of the lighting. This paper presents a designed traditional trapezoidal aluminum finned heat sink (ALFHS) and annular open cell copper foam heat sink (CUFHS) mounted to a 10 W compact LED-recessed downlight (CLRDL) and individually installed in a simulation 105 mm × 105 mm × 100 mm (L × W × H) test box. The purpose was to evaluate the temperature performance by testing the downlight in a small enclosed space with high ambient temperature while the LED is in operation. The downlight exhibited a long lifetime at normal use temperature and functioned according to Arrhenius’ law. Numerical simulation was performed first and followed by experimental validation. The heat sink design was the main factor in the heat management of the CLRDL. The heat sinks height was determined using numerical simulation and experimental validation before and after installation (INST) of the ALFHS and CUFHS. The CUFHS height was initially selected based on a larger heat dissipation capacity, and then by determining the ALFHS height. Both the ALFHS and CUFHS with the same height of 17 mm exhibited a similar capacity of heat dissipation before INST. Subsequent to INST, the temperature of the solder point of the ALFHS was higher than that of the CUFHS with an identical height of 17 mm. To compare the heat dissipation behavior of the two heat sinks, the ALFHS height was increased to 23 mm, which is 6 mm higher than that of the CUFHS. The results of a stationary simulation study for junction temperature coincides with the experimental results tested obtained using J-type thermocouples and a data acquisition system. The temperature of the solder point of the CLRDL with both the ALFHS and CUFHS was 91.7 °C after INST, corresponding to an LED junction temperature of 121.7 °C, which is lower than specified 135 °C LED limit temperature. The temperature distributions of specified points under natural convection were evaluated. The CLRDL installed in a small enclosed space withstood the lifetime requirements according to the results of an accelerated life test prediction. The CLRDL lumen maintenance was tested to be more than 25,000 h. The experimental results demonstrate compliance with the Energy Star® requirements for indoor LED lighting fixtures. View Full-Text
Keywords: compact LED recessed downlight; multiphysics numerical simulation; heat sink compact LED recessed downlight; multiphysics numerical simulation; heat sink
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hsu, H.-C.; Huang, Y.-C. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation for the Thermal Analysis of a Compact LED Recessed Downlight with Heat Sink Design. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 4.

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