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Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(6), 180; doi:10.3390/app6060180

Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Godfrey Okoye University, Enugu 400211, Nigeria
2
Department of Biochemistry, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria
3
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka410001, Nigeria
4
Department of Sociology and Anthropology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka 410001, Nigeria
5
SAMRC Microbial Water Quality Monitoring Centre, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
6
Applied and Environmental Microbiology Research Group (AEMREG), Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helmut Martin Hügel
Received: 21 March 2016 / Revised: 30 May 2016 / Accepted: 31 May 2016 / Published: 17 June 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [212 KB, uploaded 17 June 2016]

Abstract

Saponins are pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to ameliorate abnormal physiological processes and be aptly applied in folklore for the treatment of maladies occasioned by infectious agents. Consequently, saponins from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla were evaluated for antibacterial properties, as these herbs are used in folk medicine. Dried pulverized plant materials were defatted, and solvents with varying polarity were applied at varying ratios for the extraction of saponins. Phyto-chemistry was in accordance with standard methods, while an antibacterial assay was made through the agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Phytochemical quantitation showed high concentrations of tannins, 231 ± 0.6 CE/g, and saponins, 58% from V. doniana. Similarly, P. macrophylla stem bark extract also showed high concentrations of tannins, 309 ± 2.42 CE/g, alkaloids, 71% ± 0.5%, and saponins, 87% ± 3.4%. The ethanol extracts of V. doniana inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11775) and a clinical strain with inhibition zone ranges of 15.5 ± 2.12 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm) against leaf extracts and 20.0 ± 1.41 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm) against stem bark extracts. Conversely, saponin extract from V. doniana showed a broad spectrum of activity, as it inhibited both Gram-negative and -positive test strains, E. coli clinical strain (20.0 ± 1.41 mm), P. aeruginosa clinical strain (18.5 ± 0.71 mm), E. coli ATCC 11775 (17.0 ± 0 mm), and S. aureus clinical strain (13.0 ± 1.41 mm). However, a broad spectrum was similarly achieved with P. macrophylla extracts, as all test bacteria genus was susceptible. Saponin fractions showed a high potency and broad spectrum antibacterial activity and thus a validation of the folklore applications and the potential for use as a drug or drug scaffold. View Full-Text
Keywords: phyto-constituents; folk medicine; cold maceration; aglycone; steroidal saponins phyto-constituents; folk medicine; cold maceration; aglycone; steroidal saponins
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Akaniro-Ejim, N.E.; Ubani, C.S.; Nubila, N.I.; Nzei, A.A.; Nwodo, U.U.; Okoh, A.I. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 180.

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