Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity
AbstractSaponins are pharmacologically active compounds that have been shown to ameliorate abnormal physiological processes and be aptly applied in folklore for the treatment of maladies occasioned by infectious agents. Consequently, saponins from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla were evaluated for antibacterial properties, as these herbs are used in folk medicine. Dried pulverized plant materials were defatted, and solvents with varying polarity were applied at varying ratios for the extraction of saponins. Phyto-chemistry was in accordance with standard methods, while an antibacterial assay was made through the agar well diffusion and micro broth dilution techniques. Phytochemical quantitation showed high concentrations of tannins, 231 ± 0.6 CE/g, and saponins, 58% from V. doniana. Similarly, P. macrophylla stem bark extract also showed high concentrations of tannins, 309 ± 2.42 CE/g, alkaloids, 71% ± 0.5%, and saponins, 87% ± 3.4%. The ethanol extracts of V. doniana inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 11775) and a clinical strain with inhibition zone ranges of 15.5 ± 2.12 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm) against leaf extracts and 20.0 ± 1.41 to 7.0 ± 0.0 (mm) against stem bark extracts. Conversely, saponin extract from V. doniana showed a broad spectrum of activity, as it inhibited both Gram-negative and -positive test strains, E. coli clinical strain (20.0 ± 1.41 mm), P. aeruginosa clinical strain (18.5 ± 0.71 mm), E. coli ATCC 11775 (17.0 ± 0 mm), and S. aureus clinical strain (13.0 ± 1.41 mm). However, a broad spectrum was similarly achieved with P. macrophylla extracts, as all test bacteria genus was susceptible. Saponin fractions showed a high potency and broad spectrum antibacterial activity and thus a validation of the folklore applications and the potential for use as a drug or drug scaffold. View Full-Text
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Akaniro-Ejim, N.E.; Ubani, C.S.; Nubila, N.I.; Nzei, A.A.; Nwodo, U.U.; Okoh, A.I. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 180.
Akaniro-Ejim NE, Ubani CS, Nubila NI, Nzei AA, Nwodo UU, Okoh AI. Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity. Applied Sciences. 2016; 6(6):180.Chicago/Turabian Style
Akaniro-Ejim, Nneoma E.; Ubani, Chibuike S.; Nubila, Nkoyo I.; Nzei, Alexander A.; Nwodo, Uchechukwu U.; Okoh, Anthony I. 2016. "Evaluation of Saponin Extract from Vitex doniana and Pentaclethra macrophylla for Antibacterial Activity." Appl. Sci. 6, no. 6: 180.
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