Next Article in Journal
Integrating Textural and Spectral Features to Classify Silicate-Bearing Rocks Using Landsat 8 Data
Previous Article in Journal
Formation of a Colloidal CdSe and ZnSe Quantum Dots via a Gamma Radiolytic Technique
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(10), 277; doi:10.3390/app6100277

Fluoride Sorption Efficiency of Vermiculite Functionalised with Cationic Surfactant: Isotherm and Kinetics

1
Department of Hydrology and Water Resources, School of Environmental Sciences, University of Venda, P/Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
2
Directorate of Research and Innovation, University of Venda, P/Bag X5050, Thohoyandou 0950, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Agustín Bueno-López
Received: 9 July 2016 / Revised: 13 September 2016 / Accepted: 15 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [3921 KB, uploaded 29 September 2016]   |  

Abstract

Groundwater is a major source of water, especially in rural communities. The presence of excess fluoride in groundwater has been a health concern for many decades because it causes fluorosis. The persistence of this problem led to the development of several approaches for reducing fluoride in groundwater to ≤1.5 mg/L, which is the World Health Organization’s (WHO) permissible limit. Despite recorded success in fluoride reduction, drawbacks such as cost and efficiency have remained apparent, thus necessitating further research on defluoridation. This paper aims at assessing the defluoridation capacity of a clay mineral, vermiculite, when modified with the cationic surfactant hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide. The effects of experimental parameters such as pH, agitation time, mass of adsorbent, and temperature were examined to determine the most favourable adsorption conditions. Using batch technique, the results showed a fluoride sorption of 51% from an 8 mg/L fluoride solution. The adsorption conformed more to Freundlich than Langmuir isotherm with an adsorption capacity of 2.36 mg/g, while the kinetics conformed to a pseudo-second-order reaction. pH emerged as the most influential factor in optimisation. The findings of this study indicated that modified vermiculite could be efficient in reducing fluoride in groundwater to more tolerable limits, but requires adequate pH control. View Full-Text
Keywords: adsorption; fluorosis; permissible limits; surfactant; vermiculite adsorption; fluorosis; permissible limits; surfactant; vermiculite
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Ologundudu, T.O.; Odiyo, J.O.; Ekosse, G.-I.E. Fluoride Sorption Efficiency of Vermiculite Functionalised with Cationic Surfactant: Isotherm and Kinetics. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 277.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top