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Environments 2016, 3(1), 3; doi:10.3390/environments3010003

Optimization of a Green Extraction/Inclusion Complex Formation Process to Recover Antioxidant Polyphenols from Oak Acorn Husks (Quercus Robur) Using Aqueous 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin/Glycerol Mixtures

1
School of Environment, University of the Aegean, Mitr. Ioakim Street, Myrina 81400, Lemnos, Greece
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Forestry & Natural Environment, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, P.O. Box 235, Thessaloniki 54124, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 2 December 2015 / Revised: 21 January 2016 / Accepted: 22 January 2016 / Published: 2 February 2016
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Abstract

Aqueous mixtures of glycerol and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (CD), two non-toxic eco-friendly substances, were used as a means of extracting antioxidant polyphenols from oak acorn (Quercur robur) husks. The process was optimized by implementing a central composite (Box-Behnken) experimental design and response surface methodology, taking into consideration the critical parameters (independent variables) of glycerol concentration (Cgl), CD concentration (CCD) and temperature (T). The assessment of the extraction model was based on three responses: the total polyphenol yield (YTP), the antiradical activity (AAR) and the reducing power (PR). The model illustrated that YTP depended significantly on Cgl and CCD, but not on T, whereas both antioxidant properties considered (AAR and PR) were temperature-dependent. The maximum predicted YTP was 122.19 mg GAE per g dry husk weight, while the extract obtained under optimized conditions displayed strong antioxidant activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; inclusion formation; glycerol; oak acorns; polyphenols antioxidants; hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin; inclusion formation; glycerol; oak acorns; polyphenols
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Kyriakidou, K.; Mourtzinos, I.; Biliaderis, C.G.; Makris, D.P. Optimization of a Green Extraction/Inclusion Complex Formation Process to Recover Antioxidant Polyphenols from Oak Acorn Husks (Quercus Robur) Using Aqueous 2-Hydroxypropyl-β-Cyclodextrin/Glycerol Mixtures. Environments 2016, 3, 3.

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