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Environments 2015, 2(4), 521-545; doi:10.3390/environments2040521

Understanding the Impact of Intensive Horticulture Land-Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in Central Kenya

Department of Earth and Environmental Studies, Montclair State University, Montclair, NJ 07043, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Pin Lin
Received: 9 July 2015 / Revised: 8 October 2015 / Accepted: 27 October 2015 / Published: 6 November 2015
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Abstract

Rapid expansion of commercial horticulture production and related activities contribute to declining surface water quality. The study sought to understand the impacts on select rivers in Laikipia and Meru, production hotspots. The specific aims were (1) to identify prevailing surface water quality by examining variations of 14 physico-chemical parameters, and (2) to categorize measured surface water quality parameters into land use types highlighting potential pollutant source processes. Water samples were collected in July and August 2013 along 14 rivers in the study area. The data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA). Principal components (PCs) explained 70% of the observed total variability of water quality, indicating a prevalence of heavy metal traces (cadmium, phosphate, and zinc). These were linked to the rigorous use of phosphate fertilizers and copper-based agrochemicals in intensive farming. DA provided four significant (p < 0.05) discriminant functions, with 89.5% correct assignment enabling the association of land use with observed water quality. Concentrations of dissolved solids, electro-conductivity, and salinity spiked at locations with intensive small-scale and large-scale horticulture. Understanding the impacts of intensive commercial horticulture and land use practices on water quality is critical to formulating ecologically sound watershed management and pollution abatement plans. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; PCA; discriminant analysis; Laikipia; Meru; fertilizers; land-use water quality; PCA; discriminant analysis; Laikipia; Meru; fertilizers; land-use
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Muriithi, F.K.; Yu, D. Understanding the Impact of Intensive Horticulture Land-Use Practices on Surface Water Quality in Central Kenya. Environments 2015, 2, 521-545.

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