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Environments 2014, 1(1), 14-30; doi:10.3390/environments1010014
Review

Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing

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Received: 13 March 2014; in revised form: 26 May 2014 / Accepted: 28 May 2014 / Published: 6 June 2014
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Abstract: Millions of animals are used in research and toxicity testing, including in drug, medical device, chemical, cosmetic, personal care, household, and other product sectors, but the environmental consequences are yet to be adequately addressed. Evidence suggests that their use and disposal, and the associated use of chemicals and supplies, contribute to pollution as well as adverse impacts on biodiversity and public health. The objective of this review is to examine such evidence. The review includes examinations of (1) resources used in animal research; (2) waste production in laboratories; (3) sources of pollution; (4) impacts on laboratory workers’ health; and (5) biodiversity impacts. The clear conclusion from the review is that the environmental implications of animal testing must be acknowledged, reported, and taken into account as another factor in addition to ethical and scientific reasons weighing heavily in favor of moving away from allowing and requiring animal use in research and testing.
Keywords: animal research; animal testing; adverse environmental impacts; laboratory waste production; breeding; laboratory health effects animal research; animal testing; adverse environmental impacts; laboratory waste production; breeding; laboratory health effects
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Groff, K.; Bachli, E.; Lansdowne, M.; Capaldo, T. Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing. Environments 2014, 1, 14-30.

AMA Style

Groff K, Bachli E, Lansdowne M, Capaldo T. Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing. Environments. 2014; 1(1):14-30.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Groff, Katherine; Bachli, Eric; Lansdowne, Molly; Capaldo, Theodora. 2014. "Review of Evidence of Environmental Impacts of Animal Research and Testing." Environments 1, no. 1: 14-30.

Environments EISSN 2076-3298 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert