Environments across the earth comprise human and natural systems which are influenced and changed by natural processes and anthropogenic activities of various scales, both globally and locally [1–4]. Natural systems such as aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments without human intervention encompass all
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Environments across the earth comprise human and natural systems which are influenced and changed by natural processes and anthropogenic activities of various scales, both globally and locally [1–4]. Natural systems such as aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments without human intervention encompass all living and non-living things with interactions of processes such as environmental physical, chemical, biological, and biogeochemical. Such processes need to be examined in environmental studies using advanced techniques and analysis methods. Moreover, through such processes, the living and non-living are intimately related to each other as natural systems from aquatic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments also provide natural resources for human needs . Conversely, human systems comprise areas and components that human activities such as agricultural activities, industrialization, or urbanization heavily influence, possibly causing environmental pollution. Correspondingly, environmental analytical methods and techniques for pollution control and prevention, as well as conservation of natural resources all provide further insight into environmental chemistry, environmental biology, ecology, geosciences, and environmental physics in natural systems from the viewpoint of environmental planning, environmental engineering and policy, environmental health and toxicology. Environmental pollution and soil, air, and water-related disasters involve complex interactions among natural and anthropogenic causes [1,4–9]. However, as is well recognized, in addition to their increasing emphasis on the investigation of environmental science and related techniques, environmental studies also focus on environmental planning, environmental assessments, environmental management, and environmental policy that cross multiple disciplinary boundaries in order to solve environmental problems, and thus improve our environment. [...]