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Behav. Sci., Volume 8, Issue 4 (April 2018)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Development and Pilot Testing of an Internet-Based Self-Help Intervention for Depression for Indian Users
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8040036
Received: 8 January 2018 / Revised: 25 February 2018 / Accepted: 16 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract
There is a dearth of published research on uptake and utility of mental health apps in India, despite a rising global trend in the application of technology in the field of mental health. We describe the development and pilot testing of a self-help
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There is a dearth of published research on uptake and utility of mental health apps in India, despite a rising global trend in the application of technology in the field of mental health. We describe the development and pilot testing of a self-help intervention for depression, PUSH-D (Practice and Use Self-Help for Depression) for urban Indians. This guided self-help app, with essential and optional zone sections, was developed to provide a comprehensive coverage of therapeutic strategies drawn from cognitive behavior therapy, interpersonal therapy, supportive psychotherapy, and positive psychology. Pilot testing was carried out using a single group pre-, post- and follow-up design in 78 eligible participants. Participants were typically young adults with major depression or dysthymia and significant impairment in functioning. Almost two-thirds of the participants had never sought professional mental health help. Significant reductions in depression and improvement in the functioning and well-being were notedon standardized measures in participants completing all 10 essential zone sections. These gains were maintained at follow-up. The results were similar for partial completers, who completed fiveout of the 10 essential sections. PUSH-D is one of the first indigenously developed self-help apps for depression and it shows promise in reducing the treatment gap for depression in India. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-v1.1 in Adults with Major Depressive Disorder
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8040037
Received: 26 January 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 27 March 2018 / Published: 29 March 2018
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Abstract
Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an under-recognized comorbid disorder among patients with mood disorders. ADHD is an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior and contributes to many aspects of impaired function in adults. Diagnosis of ADHD in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD)
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Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is an under-recognized comorbid disorder among patients with mood disorders. ADHD is an independent risk factor for suicidal ideation and behavior and contributes to many aspects of impaired function in adults. Diagnosis of ADHD in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) patients is challenging due to the overlap in cognitive symptoms between the two disorders. The ADHD Self-Report Scale, version 1.1 (ASRS-v1.1) is a widely used screening instrument for ADHD in adults but its accuracy has not been evaluated previously in treatment-seeking MDD patients. We administered the ASRS-v1.1 to 55 healthy controls and 40 adults with a primary psychiatric diagnosis of MDD who were participating in clinical research studies. ADHD diagnosis was assessed via structured interview with the adult ADHD module of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus version 6.0.0 (MINI) along with a psychiatrist’s assessment. Overall, full-syndrome ADHD was diagnosed in 12.5% of the MDD patients. MDD patients endorsed all 18 items of the ASRS-v1.1 more frequently than the healthy controls and the number of ASRS-v1.1 items endorsed correlated with levels of anxiety in the MDD patients. The ASRS-v1.1 demonstrated fair performance for identifying full syndrome DSM-IV ADHD diagnosis, with sensitivity 60%, specificity: 68.6%, positive predictive value 21.4%, negative predictive value 92.3% and total classification accuracy of 67.5%. Positive predictive value improved substantially when the ADHD criterion requiring symptom onset before age 7 was omitted. In adult MDD patients, a negative ASRS-v1.1 screen strongly suggests the absence of ADHD but positive screen results require careful evaluation to determine whether self-reported ADHD symptoms simply emerge from depression or whether comorbid ADHD is present. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Title IX Coordinators on College and University Campuses
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8040038
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 29 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
The purpose of this study was to better understand the role of Title IX coordinators and their policies across four-year universities and two-year community colleges in the United States (U.S.). There is little information regarding Title IX coordinators’ training, background, and policies on
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The purpose of this study was to better understand the role of Title IX coordinators and their policies across four-year universities and two-year community colleges in the United States (U.S.). There is little information regarding Title IX coordinators’ training, background, and policies on how they handle Title IX investigations regarding sexual violence. The data come from an online survey that included 692 Title IX coordinators across four-year (private and public) and two-year campuses and represented 42 different states in the US. The current study found that most Title IX coordinators were in part-time positions with less than three years of experience. Most of the coordinators and their investigators were trained in Title IX policies. Most coordinators provide Title IX training for their students and faculty, and most have completed a campus climate survey; however, 15% had not completed a survey. The findings suggest that the majority of campuses are continuing to increase their Title IX visibility; however, there are several recommendations for campuses to improve their policies. The current study was able to shed light on how Title IX coordinators do their jobs and the role they play in helping with the challenging issues surrounding sexual violence at institutions across the nation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Violence on College Campus)
Open AccessArticle Does Discrimination Explain High Risk of Depression among High-Income African American Men?
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8040040
Received: 24 January 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 28 March 2018 / Published: 19 April 2018
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Abstract
Background: Higher socioeconomic status is known to decrease the risk for poor mental health overall. However, African American males of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are at an increased risk for having a major depressive episode (MDE). It is not known whether perceived discrimination
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Background: Higher socioeconomic status is known to decrease the risk for poor mental health overall. However, African American males of higher socioeconomic status (SES) are at an increased risk for having a major depressive episode (MDE). It is not known whether perceived discrimination (PD) explains this risk. The current study used nationally representative data to explore the role of PD in explaining the association between high-SES and having MDE among African American men. Methods: The National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003, included 4461 American adults including 1271 African American men. SES indicators (i.e., household income, educational attainment, employment status, and marital status) were the independent variables. 12-month MDE measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was the outcome. Age, gender, and region were the covariates. PD was the potential mediator. For data analysis, we used logistic regression. Results: Among African American men, household income was positively associated with odds of 12-month MDE. The positive association between household income and odds of MDE remained unchanged after adding PD to the model, suggesting that PD may not explain why high-income African American men are at a higher risk of MDE. Conclusions: Perceived discrimination does not explain the increased risk for depression among African American males of higher SES. Future research should explore the role of other potential mechanisms such as stress, coping, social isolation, and/or negative social interaction that may increase psychological costs of upward social mobility for African American males. Full article
Open AccessArticle The Aesthetic Turn in Mental Health: Reflections on an Explorative Study into Practices in the Arts Therapies
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8040041
Received: 14 March 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 23 April 2018
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Abstract
The paper will draw on materials from arts therapies literature and comments from experts’ panels to discuss some specific characteristics of the arts therapies and to investigate the role of aesthetic engagement for resilience and mental well-being. The arts increasingly find their way
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The paper will draw on materials from arts therapies literature and comments from experts’ panels to discuss some specific characteristics of the arts therapies and to investigate the role of aesthetic engagement for resilience and mental well-being. The arts increasingly find their way as interventions in mental health domains. However, explorations into the specific mechanisms that underpin the therapeutic effect of arts-based activities are still scarce. Qualitative data were collected from a thematic literature review and expert comments on meaningful working procedures in arts therapies. Analysis of multiple data sources revealed core themes and core procedures that occur across arts therapy modalities. This paper presents a practice informed model of arts-based methods in mental health that may serve as a conceptual frame of reference for arts therapists and as study material on the applicability of arts therapy interventions for specific mental health settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embodied Aesthetics and Interpersonal Resonance)
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Review

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Open AccessReview What We Know About the Brain Structure–Function Relationship
Behav. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/bs8040039
Received: 8 March 2018 / Revised: 11 April 2018 / Accepted: 16 April 2018 / Published: 18 April 2018
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Abstract
How the human brain works is still a question, as is its implication with brain architecture: the non-trivial structure–function relationship. The main hypothesis is that the anatomic architecture conditions, but does not determine, the neural network dynamic. The functional connectivity cannot be explained
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How the human brain works is still a question, as is its implication with brain architecture: the non-trivial structure–function relationship. The main hypothesis is that the anatomic architecture conditions, but does not determine, the neural network dynamic. The functional connectivity cannot be explained only considering the anatomical substrate. This involves complex and controversial aspects of the neuroscience field and that the methods and methodologies to obtain structural and functional connectivity are not always rigorously applied. The goal of the present article is to discuss about the progress made to elucidate the structure–function relationship of the Central Nervous System, particularly at the brain level, based on results from human and animal studies. The current novel systems and neuroimaging techniques with high resolutive physio-structural capacity have brought about the development of an integral framework of different structural and morphometric tools such as image processing, computational modeling and graph theory. Different laboratories have contributed with in vivo, in vitro and computational/mathematical models to study the intrinsic neural activity patterns based on anatomical connections. We conclude that multi-modal techniques of neuroimaging are required such as an improvement on methodologies for obtaining structural and functional connectivity. Even though simulations of the intrinsic neural activity based on anatomical connectivity can reproduce much of the observed patterns of empirical functional connectivity, future models should be multifactorial to elucidate multi-scale relationships and to infer disorder mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue State of Art in Non-Clinical Models for Neurodegenerative Diseases)
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