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Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization
Institute of Zoology, Karl-Franzens-University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 2, 8010 Graz, Austria
Competence Center Apes, Four Paws, Linke Wienzeile 236, 1150 Vienna, Austria
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2012; in revised form: 20 January 2013 / Accepted: 23 January 2013 / Published: 31 January 2013
Abstract: Adverse rearing conditions are considered a major factor in the development of abnormal behavior. We investigated the overall levels, the prevalence and the diversity of abnormal behavior of 18 adult former laboratory chimpanzees, who spent about 20 years single caged, over a two-year period following re-socialization. According to the onset of deprivation, the individuals were classified as early deprived (EDs, mean: 1.2 years) or late deprived (LDs, mean: 3.6 years). The results are based on 187.5 hours of scan sampling distributed over three sample periods: subsequent to re-socialization and during the first and second year of group-living. While the overall levels and the diversity of abnormal behavior remained stable over time in this study population, the amplifying effects of age at onset of deprivation became apparent as the overall levels of abnormal behavior of EDs were far above those of LDs in the first and second year of group-living, but not immediately after re-socialization. The most prevalent abnormal behaviors, including eating disorders and self-directed behaviors, however, varied in their occurrence within subjects across the periods. Most important, the significance of social companionship became obvious as the most severe forms of abnormal behavior, such as dissociative and self-injurious behaviors declined.
Keywords: chimpanzees; abnormal behavior; social deprivation; re-socialization
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Kalcher-Sommersguter, E.; Franz-Schaider, C.; Preuschoft, S.; Crailsheim, K. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization. Behav. Sci. 2013, 3, 99-119.
Kalcher-Sommersguter E, Franz-Schaider C, Preuschoft S, Crailsheim K. Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization. Behavioral Sciences. 2013; 3(1):99-119.
Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Franz-Schaider, Cornelia; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl. 2013. "Long-Term Evaluation of Abnormal Behavior in Adult Ex-laboratory Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Following Re-socialization." Behav. Sci. 3, no. 1: 99-119.