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Med. Sci. 2016, 4(1), 5; doi:10.3390/medsci4010005

Clinical Significance of IgG Avidity Testing and Other Considerations in the Diagnosis of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Review Update

1
Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja PMB 228, Nigeria
2
Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, College of Health Sciences, University of Ilorin, PMB 1515 Ilorin, Nigeria
3
Department of Medical Microbiology, Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University Teaching Hospital, Bauchi PMB 0117, Nigeria
4
Immunology unit, Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 05 Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hung-Yun Lin
Received: 24 November 2015 / Revised: 29 February 2016 / Accepted: 3 March 2016 / Published: 8 March 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [203 KB, uploaded 8 March 2016]

Abstract

Prompt and accurate laboratory testing of women before or during antenatal days is necessary for detecting humoral immunological responses against cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and assessing risk of congenital transmission. CMV is the most common viral etiology with the greatest propensity to induce neonatal pathologies. Most healthcare facilities in developing countries rely solely on anti-CMV IgM and IgG assays in diagnosing CMV infections. However, these parameters have some worrisome limitations. This study reviewed the significance of IgG avidity testing as a highly sensitive and specific tool that improves decisions regarding diagnosis of maternal and congenital CMV infections. We conducted this review from relevant published articles using an extensive literature search made through PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar on the concepts of congenital CMV (CCMV) transmission and clinical significance of IgG avidity testing in diagnosis of CCMV infections. Findings from our review revealed that IgG avidity testing in some developed societies was frequently utilized to resolve dilemmas associated with serodiagnosis of CMV infections, however, there is paucity of information in regards to its use in developing countries. The non-inclusion of IgG avidity testing during serological investigations of CMV could be a reason why congenital CMV infections and associated pathologies often go underdiagnosed in developing countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: congenital transmission; IgG avidity; antenatal screening; cytomegalovirus congenital transmission; IgG avidity; antenatal screening; cytomegalovirus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Abdullahi Nasir, I.; Babayo, A.; Shehu, M.S. Clinical Significance of IgG Avidity Testing and Other Considerations in the Diagnosis of Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: A Review Update. Med. Sci. 2016, 4, 5.

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