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Med. Sci. 2015, 3(2), 3-15; doi:10.3390/medsci3020003

Potential Role of Honey in Learning and Memory

Department of Psychiatry, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia
Department of Physiology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia
Women's Health Development Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Malaysia
Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA), Jalan Sultan Mahmud, 20400 Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
Institute of Health Sciences, Muscat P.O. Box 3720, Ruwi Code 112, Oman
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Yu-Jia Chang
Received: 1 March 2015 / Revised: 30 March 2015 / Accepted: 1 April 2015 / Published: 9 April 2015
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [381 KB, uploaded 9 April 2015]   |  


The composition and physicochemical properties of honey are variable depending on its floral source and often named according to the geographical location. The potential medicinal benefits of Tualang honey, a multifloral jungle honey found in Malaysia, have recently been attracting attention because of its reported beneficial effects in various diseases. This paper reviews the effects of honey, particularly Tualang honey, on learning and memory. Information regarding the effects of Tualang honey on learning and memory in human as well as animal models is gleaned to hypothesize its underlying mechanisms. These studies show that Tualang honey improves morphology of memory-related brain areas, reduces brain oxidative stress, increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and acetylcholine (ACh) concentrations, and reduces acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the brain homogenates. Its anti-inflammatory roles in reducing inflammatory trigger and microglial activation have yet to be investigated. It is hypothesized that the improvement in learning and memory following Tualang honey supplementation is due to the significant improvement in brain morphology and enhancement of brain cholinergic system secondary to reduction in brain oxidative damage and/or upregulation of BDNF concentration. Further studies are imperative to elucidate the molecular mechanism of actions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Tualang honey; learning; memory; BDNF; ACh; AChE Tualang honey; learning; memory; BDNF; ACh; AChE

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Othman, Z.; Zakaria, R.; Hussain, N.H.N.; Hassan, A.; Shafin, N.; Al-Rahbi, B.; Ahmad, A.H. Potential Role of Honey in Learning and Memory. Med. Sci. 2015, 3, 3-15.

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