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Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040114

Impact of Climate Change on Flood Frequency and Intensity in the Kabul River Basin

1
Environmental Systems Analysis Group, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
Water Systems and Global Change Group, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Querner Consult, 6709 DA, Wageningen, The Netherlands
4
Department of Civil Engineering, UET Peshawar, Jalozai Campus, Peshawar 25000, Pakistan
5
Centre for Water Informatics and Technology (WIT), LUMS, Lahore, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 15 March 2018 / Accepted: 15 March 2018 / Published: 30 March 2018
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Abstract

Devastating floods adversely affect human life and infrastructure. Various regions of the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas receive intense monsoon rainfall, which, together with snow and glacier melt, produce intense floods. The Kabul river basin originates from the Hindukush Mountains and is frequently hit by such floods. We analyses flood frequency and intensity in Kabul basin for a contemporary period (1981–2015) and two future periods (i.e., 2031–2050 and 2081–2100) using the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios based on four bias-corrected downscaled climate models (INM-CM4, IPSL-CM5A, EC-EARTH, and MIROC5). Future floods are modelled with the SWAT hydrological model. The model results suggest an increasing trend due to an increasing precipitation and higher temperatures (based on all climate models except INM-CM4), which accelerates snow and glacier-melt. All of the scenario results show that the current flow with a 1 in 50 year return period is likely to occur more frequently (i.e., 1 in every 9–10 years and 2–3 years, respectively) during the near and far future periods. Such increases in intensity and frequency are likely to adversely affect downstream population and infrastructures. This, therefore, urges for appropriate early precautionary mitigation measures. This study can assist water managers and policy makers in their preparation to adequately plan for and manage flood protection. Its findings are also relevant for other basins in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Himalayas region. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kabul basin; climate-change; GCMs; SWAT model; HEC-SSP; floods Kabul basin; climate-change; GCMs; SWAT model; HEC-SSP; floods
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Iqbal, M.S.; Dahri, Z.H.; Querner, E.P.; Khan, A.; Hofstra, N. Impact of Climate Change on Flood Frequency and Intensity in the Kabul River Basin. Geosciences 2018, 8, 114.

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