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Geosciences 2018, 8(4), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8040107

A Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) Method Survey in North-Central Coast of Crete, Greece: Evidence of Seawater Intrusion

1
Laboratory of Geophysics and Seismology, UNESCO Chair in Solid Earth Physics and Geohazards Risk Reduction, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 3 Romanou St, Chalepa, 73133 Chania, Crete, Greece
2
Department of Environment and Natural Resources Engineering, Technological Educational Institute of Crete, 3 Romanou St, Chalepa, 73133 Chania, Crete, Greece
3
Department of Life Sciences, Brunel University, Uxbridge UB8 3PH, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 January 2018 / Revised: 14 March 2018 / Accepted: 19 March 2018 / Published: 22 March 2018
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Abstract

Seawater intrusion into near-shore aquifers is one of the main environmental problems that affect Mediterranean islands. Crete is the biggest and most populated island of Greece, characterized by limited surface waters and strong dependence on groundwater sources as the primary source of natural water supply for extensive agricultural activity and human use. Freshwater demand in Crete has increased notably the last decades. The Geropotamos aquifer is located on the north-central coast of Crete and freshwater management is in a delicate balance with saltwater at coastal areas of the aquifer due to the scarce precipitation and high evaporation as well as the intense over exploitation of the groundwater resources. The geological setting of the study area is considered complex and the local tectonic regime is characterized by two sets of faults orientated NW-SE and NE-SW. Investigation of the aquifer using a survey grid of 1179 Transient ElectroMagnetic soundings (TEM) in 372 sites, has resulted in 1D models, and 2D/3D visualization of geoelectric structures, depicting the zones of salination of groundwater in the aquifer. Geological mapping, hydro-lithological data and geochemical analysis of 24 water samples (22 boreholes and 2 springs) are in agreement with results obtained from TEM soundings, supporting our interpretation that the aquifer is degraded by saline intrusion which likely occurs along fractures in a fault zone, emphasising the critical role of fracture pathways in salination problems of coastal aquifers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Transient ElectroMagnetic soundings; TEM; seawater intrusion; Crete; fracture zones; groundwater quality Transient ElectroMagnetic soundings; TEM; seawater intrusion; Crete; fracture zones; groundwater quality
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Kalisperi, D.; Kouli, M.; Vallianatos, F.; Soupios, P.; Kershaw, S.; Lydakis-Simantiris, N. A Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) Method Survey in North-Central Coast of Crete, Greece: Evidence of Seawater Intrusion. Geosciences 2018, 8, 107.

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