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Geosciences 2018, 8(3), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8030102

Geomorphology and Late Pleistocene–Holocene Sedimentary Processes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland

1
A.P. Karpinsky Russian Geological Research Institute (VSEGEI), 74, Sredny prospect, 199106 Saint Petersburg, Russia
2
Institute of Earth Science, St. Petersburg State University, 7–9 Universitetskaya Embankment, 199034 Saint Petersburg, Russia
3
Shirshov Institute of Oceanology, Russian Academy of Sciences, 36, Nahimovskiy prospekt, 117997 Moscow, Russia
4
Institute of Environmental Management, Urban Development and Spatial Planning, I. Kant Baltic Federal University, 14, Nevskogo Alexandre street, 236016 Kaliningrad, Russia
5
Faculty of Geological Prospecting, Saint-Petersburg Mining University, 21 Line, 2, 199106 Saint Petersburg, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 December 2017 / Revised: 8 March 2018 / Accepted: 14 March 2018 / Published: 18 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Geomorphometry)
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Abstract

In 2017, a detailed study of the Eastern Gulf of Finland (the Baltic Sea) seafloor was performed to identify and map submerged glacial and postglacial geomorphologic features and collect data pertinent to the understanding of sedimentation in postglacial basins. Two key areas within the Gulf were investigate using a multibeam echosounder, SeaBat 8111 and an EdgeTech 3300-HM acoustic sub-bottom profiling system. High-resolution multibeam bathymetric data (3-m resolution) were used to calculate aspect, slope, terrain ruggedness and bathymetric position index using ArcGIS Spatial Analyst and the Benthic Terrain Modeler toolbox. These data and resultant thematic maps revealed, for the first time, such features as streamlined till ridges, end-moraine ridges, and De Geer moraines that are being used for the reconstruction of the deglaciation in the Eastern Gulf of Finland. This deglaciation occurred between 13.8 and 13.3 ka BP (Pandivere–Neva stage) and 12.25 ka BP (Salpausselkä I stage). Interpretations of the seismic-reflection profiles and 3D models showing the surfaces of till, and the identification of the Late Pleistocene sediment and modern bottom relief, indicate deep relative water-level fall in the Early Holocene and, most likely, several water-level fluctuations during this time. View Full-Text
Keywords: geomorphology; submerged glacial bedforms; deglaciation; sedimentation; multibeam; acoustic-seismic profiling geomorphology; submerged glacial bedforms; deglaciation; sedimentation; multibeam; acoustic-seismic profiling
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Ryabchuk, D.; Sergeev, A.; Krek, A.; Kapustina, M.; Tkacheva, E.; Zhamoida, V.; Budanov, L.; Moskovtsev, A.; Danchenkov, A. Geomorphology and Late Pleistocene–Holocene Sedimentary Processes of the Eastern Gulf of Finland. Geosciences 2018, 8, 102.

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