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Geosciences 2017, 7(4), 114; doi:10.3390/geosciences7040114

Influence of Flow Velocity on Tsunami Loss Estimation

Department of Civil Engineering, Queen’s School of Engineering, University of Bristol, Queen’s Building, University Walk, Bristol BS8 1TR, UK
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Received: 30 September 2017 / Revised: 28 October 2017 / Accepted: 1 November 2017 / Published: 7 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Interdisciplinary Geosciences Perspectives of Tsunami)
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Abstract

Inundation depth is commonly used as an intensity measure in tsunami fragility analysis. However, inundation depth cannot be taken as the sole representation of tsunami impact on structures, especially when structural damage is caused by hydrodynamic and debris impact forces that are mainly determined by flow velocity. To reflect the influence of flow velocity in addition to inundation depth in tsunami risk assessment, a tsunami loss estimation method that adopts both inundation depth and flow velocity (i.e., bivariate intensity measures) in evaluating tsunami damage is developed. To consider a wide range of possible tsunami inundation scenarios, Monte Carlo-based tsunami simulations are performed using stochastic earthquake slip distributions derived from a spectral synthesis method and probabilistic scaling relationships of earthquake source parameters. By focusing on Sendai (plain coast) and Onagawa (ria coast) in the Miyagi Prefecture of Japan in a case study, the stochastic tsunami loss is evaluated by total economic loss and its spatial distribution at different scales. The results indicate that tsunami loss prediction is highly sensitive to modelling resolution and inclusion of flow velocity for buildings located less than 1 km from the sea for Sendai and Onagawa of Miyagi Prefecture. View Full-Text
Keywords: stochastic tsunami simulation; tsunami loss; flow velocity; bivariate tsunami fragility function stochastic tsunami simulation; tsunami loss; flow velocity; bivariate tsunami fragility function
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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    Doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.5545645
    Description: Supplementary figures for colour-blinded readers

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Song, J.; De Risi, R.; Goda, K. Influence of Flow Velocity on Tsunami Loss Estimation. Geosciences 2017, 7, 114.

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