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Geosciences 2014, 4(4), 269-296; doi:10.3390/geosciences4040269

Architecture of Glaciotectonic Complexes

Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS), Øster Voldgade 10, DK 1350 Copenhagen K, Denmark
Received: 16 June 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 30 September 2014 / Published: 16 October 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geological Mapping and Modeling of Earth Architectures)

Abstract

Glaciotectonic studies are an integrated part of the Quaternary geological research carried out by the Danish geological survey. Almost all the hilly areas in Denmark were created or affected by glaciotectonic deformations, and the features are included in the mapping of surface near deposits. For the mapping and support of constructing 3D geological models a classification of architecture of glaciotectonic complexes is suggested. The important elements for classification of architecture are the surfaces. Four orders of surfaces are defined for glaciotectonic complexes: first-order surfaces are décollement surfaces and glaciotectonic unconformities; second-order surfaces are ramps and flats—the thrust faults; third-order surfaces are folded beds—anticlines and synclines; and fourth-order surfaces are small scale folds and faults—kink bands, conjugate faults, box folds, etc. The most important first-order surface is the décollement surface. This surface limits the glaciotectonic complex at its base and controls the extent of glaciotectonic disturbances. Below this surface, ordinary flat lying planar bedding occurs, whereas above the surface a number of structures are present characteristic of second- to fourth-order elements in the glaciotectonic architecture. The other first-order surface is the topographic top of the glaciotectonic complex, which eventually may be replaced by a truncating unconformity. View Full-Text
Keywords: glaciotectonics; geological architecture; structural complexes; deformation of sediments; tin-skinned thrust-fault tectonics glaciotectonics; geological architecture; structural complexes; deformation of sediments; tin-skinned thrust-fault tectonics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Pedersen, S.A.S. Architecture of Glaciotectonic Complexes. Geosciences 2014, 4, 269-296.

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