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Geosciences 2014, 4(3), 202-218; doi:10.3390/geosciences4030202

Risk Factors for E. coli O157 and Cryptosporidiosis Infection in Individuals in the Karst Valleys of East Tennessee, USA

1
Department of Geosciences, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614-1709, USA
2
Department of Geography, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-0925, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 June 2014 / Revised: 14 August 2014 / Accepted: 15 August 2014 / Published: 27 August 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medical Geology: Impacts of the Natural Environment on Public Health)
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Abstract

This research examines risk factors for sporadic cryptosporidiosis and Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157 infection in East Tennessee, using a case-control approach and spatial logistic regression models. The risk factors examined are animal density, land use, geology, surface water impairment, poverty rate and availability of private water supply. Proximity to karst geology, beef cow population density and a high percentage of both developed land and pasture land are positively associated with both diseases. The availability of private water supply is negatively associated with both diseases. Risk maps generated using the model coefficients show areas of elevated risk to identify the communities where background risk is highest, so that limited public health resources can be targeted to the risk factors and communities most at risk. These results can be used as the framework upon which to develop a comprehensive epidemiological study that focuses on risk factors important at the individual level. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental risk factors; spatial modeling; cryptosporidiosis; E. coli O157; spatial epidemiology; spatial logistic regression environmental risk factors; spatial modeling; cryptosporidiosis; E. coli O157; spatial epidemiology; spatial logistic regression
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Luffman, I.; Tran, L. Risk Factors for E. coli O157 and Cryptosporidiosis Infection in Individuals in the Karst Valleys of East Tennessee, USA. Geosciences 2014, 4, 202-218.

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