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Geosciences, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2014), Pages 1-49

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Geosciences in 2013
Geosciences 2014, 4(1), 30; doi:10.3390/geosciences4010030
Received: 7 March 2014 / Accepted: 7 March 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
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Abstract The editors of Geosciences would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2013. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessArticle Cretaceous-Paleogene Dinoflagellate Biostratigraphy and the Age of the Clayton Formation, Southeastern Missouri, USA
Geosciences 2014, 4(1), 1-29; doi:10.3390/geosciences4010001
Received: 31 December 2013 / Revised: 17 February 2014 / Accepted: 19 February 2014 / Published: 7 March 2014
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Abstract
Sedimentary deposits in Stoddard County, southeastern Missouri, reveal a K-Pg transition sequence represented by the uppermost Maastrichtian Owl Creek Formation and the Paleocene Clayton Formation. The Clayton Formation is characterized by a basal fossiliferous coquinite that contains reworked late Maastrichtian macrofossils. Dinoflagellate biostratigraphy
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Sedimentary deposits in Stoddard County, southeastern Missouri, reveal a K-Pg transition sequence represented by the uppermost Maastrichtian Owl Creek Formation and the Paleocene Clayton Formation. The Clayton Formation is characterized by a basal fossiliferous coquinite that contains reworked late Maastrichtian macrofossils. Dinoflagellate biostratigraphy is used to determine the age of the coquinite layer and specifically whether or not it is an end-K tsunamite deposit resulting from the Chicxulub impact event. Results indicate a mixed assemblage of late Maastrichtian and early Danian dinocysts within the basal coquinite of the Clayton Formation. Maastrichtian dinocyst taxa identified are Riculacysta amplexa, Pierceites pentagonus, Phelodinium tricuspe and Dinogymnium sp. and dinocysts utilized as global indicators of the basal Danian, also present in the coquinite, consist of Senoniasphaera inornata, Carpatella cornuta, Damassadinium californicum, and Lanternosphaeridium reinhardtii. A gray mud occurring above the coquinite in the middle of the Clayton Formation contains the mid-Danian dinoflagellate Senegalinium iterlaaense. Collectively, these data suggest that the coquinite was deposited well after the K-Pg event but before the middle Danian. The mixed assemblage of Late Cretaceous and Paleocene dinocysts preserved in the coquinite weakens the hypothesis that it is an end-K tsunamite deposit and suggests instead that it may result from a long-term transgressive lag. We also extend the stratigraphic range of the Paleocene Senegalinium simplex downward into the uppermost Maastrichtian. Full article
Open AccessArticle Critical Factors Controlling Pd and Pt Potential in Porphyry Cu–Au Deposits: Evidence from the Balkan Peninsula
Geosciences 2014, 4(1), 31-49; doi:10.3390/geosciences4010031
Received: 13 November 2013 / Revised: 28 February 2014 / Accepted: 28 February 2014 / Published: 12 March 2014
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Abstract
Porphyry Cu–Au–Pd±Pt deposits are significant Au resources, but their Pd and Pt potential is still unknown. Elevated Pd, Pt (hundreds of ppb) and Au contents are associated with typical stockwork magnetite-bornite-chalcopyrite assemblages, at the central parts of certain porphyry deposits. Unexpected high grade
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Porphyry Cu–Au–Pd±Pt deposits are significant Au resources, but their Pd and Pt potential is still unknown. Elevated Pd, Pt (hundreds of ppb) and Au contents are associated with typical stockwork magnetite-bornite-chalcopyrite assemblages, at the central parts of certain porphyry deposits. Unexpected high grade Cu–(Pd+Pt) (up to 6 ppm) mineralization with high Pd/Pt ratios at the Elatsite porphyry deposit, which is found in a spatial association with the Chelopech epithermal deposit (Bulgaria) and the Skouries porphyry deposit, may have formed during late stages of an evolved hydrothermal system. Estimated Pd, Pt and Au potential for porphyry deposits is consistent with literature model calculations demonstrating the capacity of aqueous vapor and brine to scavenge sufficient quantities of Pt and Pd, and could contribute to the global platinum-group element (PGE) production. Critical requirements controlling potential of porphyry deposits may be from the metals contained in magma (metasomatized asthenospheric mantle wedge as indicated by significant Cr, Co, Ni and Re contents). The Cr content may be an indicator for the mantle input. Full article

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