Next Article in Journal
Effects of Stocking Density on Milk Fatty Acids Composition and Oxidative Stability of Mid- and Late-Lactating Dairy Cows
Previous Article in Journal
Thermography as a Non-Invasive Measure of Stress and Fear of Humans in Sheep
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Animals 2018, 8(9), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8090147

Expeller Barrel Dry Heat and Moist Heat Pressure Duration Induce Changes in Canola Meal Protein for Ruminant Utilisation

1
ARC Industrial Transformation Training Centre for Functional Grains, Graham Centre for Agriculture and Innovation, Charles Sturt University, Wagga 2678, Australia
2
School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga 2678, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 18 August 2018 / Published: 21 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Farm Animals)
Full-Text   |   PDF [14482 KB, uploaded 24 August 2018]   |  

Simple Summary

Canola meal, a by-product of oil production from canola seed, is a source of protein commonly incorporated into dairy and feedlot rations. Processing conditions and pressure treatments can alter the quality of protein in canola meal. In this study, the impact of expeller dry heat and moist heat pressure duration time on general nutritional properties, in vitro protein degradability, Maillard reaction product formation, and molecular and microscopic structural characteristics of canola meal were investigated. Increased dry heat temperature rapidly increased digestible protein and non-protein nitrogen content, and constricted amide II secondary structure. Increased moist heat pressure treatment duration promoted browning, and the conversion of protein to more intermediately and slowly degradable forms. Dry heat and moist heat pressure affected meal protein solubility and protein and lipid-related functional groups. Moist heat pressure fragmented canola meal into enzyme-resistant aggregates with crevices containing oil bodies. Induced changes may impact the supply of protein and amino acids and subsequently the yield and composition (protein and lipid) of milk produced by dairy cows. These findings benefit producers of canola meal by further describing the effects of processing and treatment conditions on protein characteristics, particularly those which affect the production potential of ruminants fed canola meal as a source of protein.

Abstract

To improve the protein nutritional quality of canola (Brassica napus L.) meal, further investigation of the effects of processing conditions and post-production treatments is desirable. The impact of barrel dry heat temperature (20 °C (cold press) and 100 °C (expeller)) and moist heat pressure (MHP) duration time on general nutritional properties, Maillard reaction product (MRP) formation, in vitro protein degradability, and molecular and microscopic structural characteristics of canola meals were investigated. Increased MHP duration reduced (p < 0.05) dry matter, soluble protein, rapidly degradable protein, yellowness (early MRP), whiteness (late MRPs), absorbance at 294 nm (intermediate MRPs), and amide I; and increased (p < 0.05) non-protein N, neutral detergent fibre, neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (CP), intermediately and slowly degradable protein, in vitro effective CP degradability, redness, degree of colour change, and browning. Increased dry heat temperature reduced (p < 0.01) CP and rapidly degradable protein, constricted amide II, reduced (p < 0.05) protein solubility in 0.5% KOH and increased (p < 0.05) acid-detergent fibre and intermediate MRPs. Browning index and redness exhibited potential as rapid indicators of effective CP degradability and soluble protein, respectively. Dry heat and MHP altered (p < 0.05) lipid-related functional groups. Dry heat affected napin solubility, and MHP altered cruciferin and napin solubility. Application of MHP induced the formation of proteolysis-resistant protein aggregates with crevices containing oil bodies. Induced changes may impact the supply of proteins and amino acids and subsequently the yield and composition (protein and lipid) of milk produced by dairy cows. View Full-Text
Keywords: ruminal; canola; cold press; cattle; moist heat; solubility ruminal; canola; cold press; cattle; moist heat; solubility
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Heim, R.; Krebs, G. Expeller Barrel Dry Heat and Moist Heat Pressure Duration Induce Changes in Canola Meal Protein for Ruminant Utilisation. Animals 2018, 8, 147.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Animals EISSN 2076-2615 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top