Next Issue
Previous Issue

Table of Contents

Animals, Volume 8, Issue 5 (May 2018)

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Readerexternal link to open them.
Cover Story (view full-size image) The cow is considered one of the most important symbols of Hindu identity, often synonymous with [...] Read more.
View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-19
Export citation of selected articles as:
Open AccessReview Dog Theft: A Case for Tougher Sentencing Legislation
Animals 2018, 8(5), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050078
Received: 12 April 2018 / Revised: 18 May 2018 / Accepted: 21 May 2018 / Published: 22 May 2018
PDF Full-text (229 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dogs, and other companion animals, are currently classed as “property” in theft sentencing legislation for England and Wales. This means that offenders who steal dogs are given similar sentences to those that steal inanimate objects. This review presents the argument that the penalty
[...] Read more.
Dogs, and other companion animals, are currently classed as “property” in theft sentencing legislation for England and Wales. This means that offenders who steal dogs are given similar sentences to those that steal inanimate objects. This review presents the argument that the penalty for dog theft should be more severe than for the theft of non-living property. Evidence of the unique bond between dogs and humans, and discussion of the implications of labelling a living being as mere “property” are used to support this argument. The review concludes that the Sentencing Council’s guidelines should be amended so that offences involving the theft of a companion animal are deemed to be a Category 2 offence or above. The review further proposes that “theft of a companion animal” should be listed in the Sentencing Council’s guidelines as an aggravating factor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
Open AccessArticle Application of a Protocol Based on Trap-Neuter-Return (TNR) to Manage Unowned Urban Cats on an Australian University Campus
Animals 2018, 8(5), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050077
Received: 16 April 2018 / Revised: 10 May 2018 / Accepted: 11 May 2018 / Published: 17 May 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (818 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In August 2008, the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney, Australia, commenced a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program to manage the population of approximately 69 free-roaming unowned urban cats on its Kensington campus. The goals of the program included an ongoing audit of
[...] Read more.
In August 2008, the University of New South Wales (UNSW) in Sydney, Australia, commenced a trap-neuter-return (TNR) program to manage the population of approximately 69 free-roaming unowned urban cats on its Kensington campus. The goals of the program included an ongoing audit of cats on campus, stabilization of cat numbers through TNR, and a subsequent reduction in cat numbers over time while maintaining the health of remaining campus cats. Continuation of the TNR program over nine years resulted in a current population, as of September 2017, of 15 cats, all desexed (78% reduction). Regular monitoring of the cats through a daily feeding program identified a further 34 cats that immigrated on to campus since initiation of the program; these comprised 28 adult cats (16 unsocialized, 12 socialized) and six solitary kittens. In addition, 19 kittens were born on campus, 14 of which were born to immigrant pregnant females. Unsocialized adult immigrants were absorbed into the resident campus population. Where possible, socialized adult immigrants, solitary kittens, and campus-born kittens were removed from campus through rehoming. Overall, reasons for reductions in the cat population (original residents, immigrants, campus-born kittens; n = 122) included rehoming or return to owner (30%), death/euthanasia (30%) and disappearance (29%). This successful animal management program received some initial funding from the university to support desexing, but was subsequently funded through donations, and continues with the university’s approval and support. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Sheltering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Concentrate Supplement Modifies the Feeding Behavior of Simmental Cows Grazing in Two High Mountain Pastures
Animals 2018, 8(5), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050076
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 4 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1021 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows’ diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative
[...] Read more.
During grazing on Alpine pastures, the use of concentrates in dairy cows’ diet leads to a reduction of the environmental sustainability of farms, and influences the selective pressure on some plant species. In order to minimize the use of concentrates, it is imperative to obtain data on the grazing behavior of cows. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of concentrate levels on the behavior of dairy cows during grazing. One hundred and ten lactating Italian Simmental cows, that sequentially grazed two pastures characterized by Poion alpinae (Poion) and Seslerion caeruleae (Seslerion) alliance, were considered. For each pasture, eight cows were selected and assigned to two groups: High and Low, supplemented with 4 kg/head/d, and 1 kg/head/d of concentrate respectively. Cows were equipped with a noseband pressure sensor and a pedometer (RumiWatch system, ITIN-HOCH GmbH) to assess grazing, ruminating, and walking behavior. In addition, the plant selection of the animals was assessed. On Poion, increased supplement intake caused a more intense selection of legumes, without affecting feeding and walking times. On Seslerion, grazing time was higher in Low than High. Grazing management in alpine region must take into account the great variability of pastures that largely differ from a floristic and nutritional point of view. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Quantification of Methane and Ammonia Emissions in a Naturally Ventilated Barn by Using Defined Criteria to Calculate Emission Rates
Animals 2018, 8(5), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050075
Received: 5 March 2018 / Revised: 1 May 2018 / Accepted: 13 May 2018 / Published: 16 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Extensive experimentation on individual animals in respiration chambers has already been carried out to evaluate the potential of dietary changes and opportunities to mitigate CH4 emissions from ruminants. Although it is difficult to determine the air exchange rate of open barn spaces,
[...] Read more.
Extensive experimentation on individual animals in respiration chambers has already been carried out to evaluate the potential of dietary changes and opportunities to mitigate CH4 emissions from ruminants. Although it is difficult to determine the air exchange rate of open barn spaces, measurements at the herd level should provide similarly reliable and robust results. The primary objective of this study was (1) to define a validity range (data classification criteria (DCC)) for the variables of wind velocity and wind direction during long-term measurements at barn level; and (2) to apply this validity range to a feeding trial in a naturally cross-flow ventilated dairy barn. The application of the DCC permitted quantification of CH4 and NH3 emissions during a feeding trial consisting of four periods. Differences between the control group (no supplement) and the experimental group fed a ration supplemented with condensed Acacia mearnsii tannins (CT) became apparent. Notably, CT concentrations of 1% and 3% of ration dry matter did not reduce CH4 emissions. In contrast, NH3 emissions decreased 34.5% when 3% CT was supplemented. The data confirm that quantification of trace gases in a naturally ventilated barn at the herd level is possible. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Enrichment in the Sucker and Weaner Phase Altered the Performance of Pigs in Three Behavioural Tests
Animals 2018, 8(5), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050074
Received: 28 March 2018 / Revised: 30 April 2018 / Accepted: 5 May 2018 / Published: 14 May 2018
PDF Full-text (2849 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
We tested the hypothesis that provision of enrichment in the form of enrichment blocks during the sucker and weaner phases would affect the behaviour of pigs. We measured the performance of pigs in an open field/novel object test, a maze test, an executive
[...] Read more.
We tested the hypothesis that provision of enrichment in the form of enrichment blocks during the sucker and weaner phases would affect the behaviour of pigs. We measured the performance of pigs in an open field/novel object test, a maze test, an executive function test and the cortisol response of the pigs after exposure to an open field test. The provision of enrichment blocks altered the behaviour of the pigs in all three tests and these changes suggest an increased willingness to explore and possibly an increased ability to learn. The behavioural tests highlighted that young pigs have the capacity to learn complex tasks. Our findings support the notion that the benefits of enrichment cannot be evaluated by measuring the interactions the animal has with the enrichments in the home pen and it may simply be beneficial to live in a more complex environment. We have highlighted that the early rearing environment is important and that the management and husbandry at an early age can have long-term implications for pigs. The enrichment we used in this study was very simple, an enrichment block, and we provide evidence suggesting the provision of enrichment effected pig behavioural responses. Even the simplest of enrichments may have benefits for the welfare and development of young pigs and there is merit in developing enrichment devices that are suitable for use in pig production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Farm Animals)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Assessment of a Targeted Trap-Neuter-Return Pilot Study in Auckland, New Zealand
Animals 2018, 8(5), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050073
Received: 27 February 2018 / Revised: 26 April 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 13 May 2018
PDF Full-text (3525 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There is a need for effective and humane management tools to manage urban stray cats and minimise negative impacts associated with stray cats. One such tool is targeted trap-neuter-return (TTNR), but no concerted implementation of this technique or formal assessments have been reported.
[...] Read more.
There is a need for effective and humane management tools to manage urban stray cats and minimise negative impacts associated with stray cats. One such tool is targeted trap-neuter-return (TTNR), but no concerted implementation of this technique or formal assessments have been reported. To address this deficit, a TTNR programme was implemented and assessed in one Auckland suburb from May 2015 to June 2016; the programme sterilised and returned 348 cats (4.2 cats/1000 residents). Assessment was based on the number of incoming felines; stray, unsocialised cats euthanased; unsocialised, unowned cats sterilised and returned (independently of the TTNR programme); and neonatal/underage euthanasias. Incoming stray felines, underage euthanasias, and unsocialised stray cat euthanasias were all reduced for the targeted suburb when compared for the years before and after the programme (the percentage reduction in these parameters was −39, −17, −34, −7, and −47, respectively). These outcome measures had a greater reduction in the targeted suburb compared to the Auckland suburbs not targeted by the TTNR programme (p < 0.01), although causation cannot be inferred, as a variety of reasons could have contributed to the changes. This pilot programme suggests that TTNR could be a valuable, humane cat management tool in urban New Zealand, and further assessment is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Sheltering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Non-Compliance and Follow-Up in Swedish Official and Private Animal Welfare Control of Dairy Cows
Animals 2018, 8(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050072
Received: 26 March 2018 / Revised: 3 May 2018 / Accepted: 7 May 2018 / Published: 8 May 2018
PDF Full-text (519 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Farmers often have to comply with several sets of animal welfare regulations, since private standards have been developed in addition to legislation. Using an epidemiological approach, we analysed protocols from animal welfare inspections carried out in Swedish dairy herds by the County Administrative
[...] Read more.
Farmers often have to comply with several sets of animal welfare regulations, since private standards have been developed in addition to legislation. Using an epidemiological approach, we analysed protocols from animal welfare inspections carried out in Swedish dairy herds by the County Administrative Board (CAB; official control of legislation) and by the dairy company Arla Foods (private control of Arlagården standard) during 2010–2013 in the county of Västra Götaland. CAB and Arla inspections were not carried out simultaneously. We aimed to identify common non-compliances, quantify risk factors of non-compliance, and investigate if non-compliances were based on animal-, resource-, or management-based requirements, as well as determining the time period allowed for achieving compliance. Non-compliance was found in 58% of CAB cases, and 51% of Arla cases (each case comprising a sequence of one or several inspections). Dirty dairy cattle was one of the most frequent non-compliances in both control systems. However, the differences in control results were large, suggesting a difference in focus between the two systems. Tie-stall housing and winter season (Dec–Feb) were common risk factors for non-compliance, and overall organic farms had a lower predicted number of non-compliances compared to conventional farms. The presence of both similarities and differences between the systems underlines the need for transparency, predictability, and clarity of inspections. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Farm Animals)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the HIRA Gene Affect Litter Size in Small Tail Han Sheep
Animals 2018, 8(5), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050071
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 28 April 2018 / Accepted: 28 April 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
PDF Full-text (710 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Maintenance of appropriate levels of fecundity is critical for efficient sheep production. Opportunities to increase sheep litter size include identifying single gene mutations with major effects on ovulation rate and litter size. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 89 Chinese domestic sheep from nine
[...] Read more.
Maintenance of appropriate levels of fecundity is critical for efficient sheep production. Opportunities to increase sheep litter size include identifying single gene mutations with major effects on ovulation rate and litter size. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 89 Chinese domestic sheep from nine different geographical locations and ten Australian sheep were analyzed to detect new polymorphisms affecting litter size. Comparative genomic analysis of sheep with contrasting litter size detected a novel set of candidate genes. Two SNPs, g.71874104G>A and g.71833755T>C, were genotyped in 760 Small Tail Han sheep and analyzed for association with litter size. The two SNPs were significantly associated with litter size, being in strong linkage disequilibrium in the region 71.80–71.87 Mb. This haplotype block contains one gene that may affect litter size, Histone Cell Cycle Regulator (HIRA). HIRA mRNA levels in sheep with different lambing ability were significantly higher in ovaries of Small Tail Han sheep (high fecundity) than in Sunite sheep (low fecundity). Moreover, the expression levels of HIRA in eight tissues of uniparous Small Tail Han sheep were significantly higher than in multiparous Small Tail Han sheep (p < 0.05). HIRA SNPs significantly affect litter size in sheep and are useful as genetic markers for litter size. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of Different Flooring Designs on the Performance and Foot Pad Health in Broilers and Turkeys
Animals 2018, 8(5), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050070
Received: 6 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 3 May 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1931 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Litter quality has a significant influence on the performance and foot pad health in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of flooring designs on the performance and foot pad health in fattening broilers and turkeys.
[...] Read more.
Litter quality has a significant influence on the performance and foot pad health in poultry. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different types of flooring designs on the performance and foot pad health in fattening broilers and turkeys. Three trials were conducted for each species using a total of 720 Ross 308 broilers and 720 Big 6 turkeys. After day seven, animals were randomly assigned to four groups with three subgroups each: G1—floor pens with litter, G2—floor pens with litter and floor heating, G3—partially-slatted flooring, including a littered area, and G4—fully-slatted flooring with a sand bath (900 cm2). Animals of both species had a significantly higher final body weight at dissection (day 36) after being reared on fully-slatted floors compared to common littered floors. In turkeys, the feed conversion ratio was worse in G4 (1.53 ± 0.04) than in G1 (1.47 ± 0.02) and G2 (1.48 ± 0.03). Water to feed ratio was significantly higher in G2 than other groups. Turkeys’ foot pad health was significantly better in G4 than in other groups beginning at day 21. In turkeys, platforms with slatted floors that allow for temporary separation of the feet from the litter could lead to improvements in foot pad health which could better enable the realization of species-specific behaviours and activities in littered areas. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Farm Animals)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Should the Endangered Status of the Giant Panda Really Be Reduced? The Case of Giant Panda Conservation in Sichuan, China
Animals 2018, 8(5), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050069
Received: 1 March 2018 / Revised: 6 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
PDF Full-text (1230 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) reduced the threat status of the giant panda from “endangered” to “vulnerable” in September 2016. In this study, we analyzed current practices for giant panda conservation at regional and local environmental scales, based on recent
[...] Read more.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) reduced the threat status of the giant panda from “endangered” to “vulnerable” in September 2016. In this study, we analyzed current practices for giant panda conservation at regional and local environmental scales, based on recent reports of giant panda protection efforts in Sichuan Province, China, combined with the survey results from 927 households within and adjacent to the giant panda reserves in this area. The results showed that household attitudes were very positive regarding giant panda protection efforts. Over the last 10 years, farmers’ dependence on the natural resources provided by giant panda reserves significantly decreased. However, socio-economic development increased resource consumption, and led to climate change, habitat fragmentation, environmental pollution, and other issues that placed increased pressure on giant panda populations. This difference between local and regional scales must be considered when evaluating the IUCN status of giant pandas. While the status of this species has improved in the short-term due to positive local attitudes, large-scale socio-economic development pressure could have long-term negative impacts. Consequently, the IUCN assessment leading to the classification of giant panda as “vulnerable” instead of “endangered”, should not affect its conservation intensity and effort, as such actions could negatively impact population recovery efforts, leading to the extinction of this charismatic species. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Dog Population & Dog Sheltering Trends in the United States of America
Animals 2018, 8(5), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050068
Received: 2 November 2017 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 24 April 2018 / Published: 28 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (5697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Dog management in the United States has evolved considerably over the last 40 years. This review analyzes available data from the last 30 to 40 years to identify national and local trends. In 1973, The Humane Society of the US (The HSUS) estimated
[...] Read more.
Dog management in the United States has evolved considerably over the last 40 years. This review analyzes available data from the last 30 to 40 years to identify national and local trends. In 1973, The Humane Society of the US (The HSUS) estimated that about 13.5 million animals (64 dogs and cats per 1000 people) were euthanized in the US (about 20% of the pet population) and about 25% of the dog population was still roaming the streets. Intake and euthanasia numbers (national and state level) declined rapidly in the 1970s due to a number of factors, including the implementation of shelter sterilization policies, changes in sterilization practices by private veterinarians and the passage of local ordinances implementing differential licensing fees for intact and sterilized pets. By the mid-1980s, shelter intake had declined by about 50% (The HSUS estimated 7.6–10 million animals euthanized in 1985). Data collected by PetPoint over the past eight years indicate that adoptions increased in the last decade and may have become an additional driver affecting recent euthanasia declines across the US. We suspect that sterilizations, now part of the standard veterinary care, and the level of control of pet dogs exercised by pet owners (roaming dogs are now mostly absent in many US communities) played an important part in the cultural shift in the US, in which a larger proportion of families now regard their pet dogs as “family members”. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Sheltering)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Anthropogenic Food Subsidy to a Commensal Carnivore: The Value and Supply of Human Faeces in the Diet of Free-Ranging Dogs
Animals 2018, 8(5), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050067
Received: 23 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 27 April 2018
PDF Full-text (1575 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
As the global population of free-ranging domestic dogs grows, there is increasing concern about impacts on human health and wildlife conservation. Effective management of dog populations requires reliable information on their diet, feeding behavior, and social ecology. Free-ranging dogs are reliant on humans,
[...] Read more.
As the global population of free-ranging domestic dogs grows, there is increasing concern about impacts on human health and wildlife conservation. Effective management of dog populations requires reliable information on their diet, feeding behavior, and social ecology. Free-ranging dogs are reliant on humans, but anthropogenic food subsidies, particularly human faeces (i.e., coprophagy) have not previously been fully quantified. In this study we assess the contributions of different food types to the diet, and their influences on the social behaviour of free-ranging dogs in communal lands of rural Zimbabwe, with a focus on coprophagy. Free-ranging dog diets, body condition, and sociology were studied amongst 72 dogs over 18 months using scat analysis and direct observations. Human faeces constituted the fourth most common item in scats (56% occurrence) and contributed 21% by mass to the observed diet. Human faeces represented a valuable resource because relative to other food items it was consistently available, and of higher nutritional value than ‘sadza’ (maize porridge, the human staple and primary human-derived food), yielding 18.7% crude protein and 18.7 KJ/kg gross energy, compared to 8.3% and 18.5 KJ/kg for sadza, respectively. Human faeces had protein and energy values equivalent to mammal remains, another important food item. Dog condition was generally good, with 64% of adult females and 74% of adult males in the highest two body condition scores (on a five point scale), suggesting a plentiful and high quality food supply. Dogs largely fed alone, perhaps as a consequence of the small, inert, and spatially dispersed items that comprise their diet, and its abundance. We discuss the relationships between sanitation, human development, the supply of human faeces, female dog fertility, and population control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Management in the 21st Century)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Modeling Habitat Suitability of Migratory Birds from Remote Sensing Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks
Animals 2018, 8(5), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050066
Received: 27 March 2018 / Revised: 15 April 2018 / Accepted: 23 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
PDF Full-text (8140 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
With the application of various data acquisition devices, a large number of animal movement data can be used to label presence data in remote sensing images and predict species distribution. In this paper, a two-stage classification approach for combining movement data and moderate-resolution
[...] Read more.
With the application of various data acquisition devices, a large number of animal movement data can be used to label presence data in remote sensing images and predict species distribution. In this paper, a two-stage classification approach for combining movement data and moderate-resolution remote sensing images was proposed. First, we introduced a new density-based clustering method to identify stopovers from migratory birds’ movement data and generated classification samples based on the clustering result. We split the remote sensing images into 16 × 16 patches and labeled them as positive samples if they have overlap with stopovers. Second, a multi-convolution neural network model is proposed for extracting the features from temperature data and remote sensing images, respectively. Then a Support Vector Machines (SVM) model was used to combine the features together and predict classification results eventually. The experimental analysis was carried out on public Landsat 5 TM images and a GPS dataset was collected on 29 birds over three years. The results indicated that our proposed method outperforms the existing baseline methods and was able to achieve good performance in habitat suitability prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Wildlife)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Dog and Cat Interactions in a Remote Aboriginal Community
Animals 2018, 8(5), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050065
Received: 19 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
PDF Full-text (1868 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examined dog and cat demographics, roaming behaviours, and interspecific interactions in a remote Aboriginal island community using multiple methods. Our results revealed temporal differences between the roaming behaviours of dogs, cats, and wildlife. Dogs showed crepuscular behaviour, being active around dawn
[...] Read more.
This study examined dog and cat demographics, roaming behaviours, and interspecific interactions in a remote Aboriginal island community using multiple methods. Our results revealed temporal differences between the roaming behaviours of dogs, cats, and wildlife. Dogs showed crepuscular behaviour, being active around dawn (5:30 a.m. to 9:30 a.m.) and dusk (6:00 p.m. and 11:35 p.m.). The majority of cats were active between dawn (6:30 a.m.) and dusk (7:30 p.m.) and travelled shorter distances than dogs. However, some cats were also observed roaming between dusk and dawn, and were likely to be hunting since flightless wildlife were also recorded on our remote-sensing cameras during this time. These baseline data provide evidence to suggest that new management programs are needed to reduce the number of roaming cats and therefore their potential impacts on native wildlife. Collaborations between Aboriginal owners and other stakeholders is necessary to design innovative and effective animal management and policy on the island. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Management in the 21st Century)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperReview The Sheltering of Unwanted Cattle, Experiences in India and Implications for Cattle Industries Elsewhere
Animals 2018, 8(5), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050064
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 25 April 2018 / Accepted: 25 April 2018 / Published: 26 April 2018
PDF Full-text (762 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reverence for the cow has been a centerpiece of Hindu culture, the roots of which can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. Historical and anthropological literature demonstrates how over the millennia the animal’s status as a religious symbol
[...] Read more.
Reverence for the cow has been a centerpiece of Hindu culture, the roots of which can be traced back to the Indus Valley Civilization around 3000 BCE. Historical and anthropological literature demonstrates how over the millennia the animal’s status as a religious symbol steadily increased and the concept of its sanctity grew in complexity, becoming deeply entrenched and assuming a core identity of the religion. The cow has also been used as a symbol of political opposition to external influences and invading powers. Nowhere else in the world has an animal maintained such divine significance into modern day. This literature review explores the interplay of complex cultural, religious, social and political factors that led to the phenomenon of the sacred cow, a ban on its slaughter and the advent of the modern gaushala. The review also discusses the moral implications of preservation of animal life past their commercial use, the impact on their welfare and need for objectively assessing whether there is a place for such strategies in other animal industries worldwide. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Plasma Tryptophan/Large Neutral Amino Acids Ratio in Domestic Dogs Is Affected by a Single Meal with High Carbohydrates Level
Animals 2018, 8(5), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050063
Received: 14 February 2018 / Revised: 10 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
PDF Full-text (1328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma ratio between l-tryptophan (TRP) and five large neutral amino acids (isoleucine + leucine + phenylalanine + tyrosine + valine) (5LNAAs) after a single meal with high carbohydrates level. Five female Labrador Retrievers were
[...] Read more.
Aim of this study was to evaluate the plasma ratio between l-tryptophan (TRP) and five large neutral amino acids (isoleucine + leucine + phenylalanine + tyrosine + valine) (5LNAAs) after a single meal with high carbohydrates level. Five female Labrador Retrievers were involved. Each dog was fed three different meals: M1 (a mix of puffed rice, minced meat and olive oil), M2 (puffed rice and olive oil) and M3 (commercial dry food usually consumed) once in the morning per day for 30 days. Blood was collected right before the first meal (t0) and after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 24 h. Plasma amino acids’ concentrations were measured using an HPLC (High-performance liquid chromatography) method with fluorimetric detection. Plasmatic TRP concentrations showed no significant difference between M1, M2 and M3 samples at any sampling time. M2 led to a decrease in 5LNAAs levels and consequently led to a significant higher TRP/5LNAAs ratios in the 6 h period after the provision of carbohydrates, compared to both M1 and M3. In addition, the mean TRP/5LNAAs ratio was significantly higher in M2 than in M3 at t8 and t10. These results indicate that meal composition affects TRP/5LNAAs ratio and possibly, TRP bioavailability. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Update on Multiple Ovulations in Dairy Cattle
Animals 2018, 8(5), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050062
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
PDF Full-text (509 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This review updates the causal mechanisms and risk factors for multiple ovulations (MOV) in cattle. Clearly, MOV can lead to twin pregnancies, which negatively affects the health, production, and reproduction of cows. Therefore, a better understanding of the factors causing MOV may help
[...] Read more.
This review updates the causal mechanisms and risk factors for multiple ovulations (MOV) in cattle. Clearly, MOV can lead to twin pregnancies, which negatively affects the health, production, and reproduction of cows. Therefore, a better understanding of the factors causing MOV may help to reduce twinning. Multiple ovulations occur after two or more follicles deviate and achieve codominance. The MOV rate is influenced by a complex network of hormones. For example, MOV is more common during periods of low progesterone (P4), that is, in anovulatory cattle or when luteolysis coincides with the selection of the future ovulatory follicle. There is also strong evidence for the luteinizing hormone (LH) being the primary factor leading to codominance, as high P4 concentrations suppress the transient LH surges and can reduce the ovulation rate in cattle or even inhibit deviation. Rates of MOV are increased in older and higher-producing dairy cows. Increased milk production and dry matter intake (DMI) increases hormone clearance, including P4; however, the association between milk yield and MOV has not been consistent. Additional risk factors for MOV include ovarian cysts, diet, season, and genetics. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Evaluation of Two Compressed Air Foam Systems for Culling Caged Layer Hens
Animals 2018, 8(5), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050061
Received: 9 March 2018 / Revised: 13 April 2018 / Accepted: 18 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
PDF Full-text (866 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) and other highly contagious poultry diseases continue to be a concern for those involved in the poultry industry. In the situation of an outbreak, emergency depopulation of the birds involved is necessary. In this project, two compressed air
[...] Read more.
Outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) and other highly contagious poultry diseases continue to be a concern for those involved in the poultry industry. In the situation of an outbreak, emergency depopulation of the birds involved is necessary. In this project, two compressed air foam systems (CAFS) were evaluated for mass emergency depopulation of layer hens in a manure belt equipped cage system. In both experiments, a randomized block design was used with multiple commercial layer hens treated with one of three randomly selected depopulation methods: CAFS, CAFS with CO2 gas, and CO2 gas. In Experiment 1, a Rowe manufactured CAFS was used, a selection of birds were instrumented, and the time to unconsciousness, brain death, altered terminal cardiac activity and motion cessation were recorded. CAFS with and without CO2 was faster to unconsciousness, however, the other parameters were not statistically significant. In Experiment 2, a custom Hale based CAFS was used to evaluate the impact of bird age, a selection of birds were instrumented, and the time to motion cessation was recorded. The difference in time to cessation of movement between pullets and spent hens using CAFS was not statistically significant. Both CAFS depopulate caged layers, however, there was no benefit to including CO2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Humane Killing and Euthanasia of Animals on Farms)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Course of Parturition Affects Piglet Condition at Birth and Survival and Growth through the Nursery Phase
Animals 2018, 8(5), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8050060
Received: 21 March 2018 / Revised: 16 April 2018 / Accepted: 21 April 2018 / Published: 24 April 2018
PDF Full-text (527 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to relate the course of parturition to the condition of piglets at birth, based on umbilical cord blood acid-base values, and relate the condition at birth to neonatal survival and performance up to 10 weeks of life.
[...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to relate the course of parturition to the condition of piglets at birth, based on umbilical cord blood acid-base values, and relate the condition at birth to neonatal survival and performance up to 10 weeks of life. Data were collected from 37 spontaneous unassisted parturitions, and neonatal performance was based on observations of 516 piglets. Stillbirth rate increased from 2% in the first piglets, to 17% in piglets born 13th in the litter or later. This was aggravated in sows with longer than average stage II of parturition. Umbilical cord blood values also reflected the effect of birth order, with pH decreasing and lactate increasing in the course of parturition. Interestingly, sows that had a long expulsion stage of parturition also took longer to give birth to the first four piglets (r = 0.74), suggesting that sows with complicated parturition were already experiencing problems at the start of expulsion of piglets. Piglets with signs of asphyxia, based on umbilical blood lactate higher than 4.46 mmol/L, were slower to start suckling, had a higher risk of neonatal mortality, and had a slower growth rate over the first 10 weeks of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Farm Animals)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top