Next Article in Journal
Exploring the Gaps in Practical Ethical Guidance for Animal Welfare Considerations of Field Interventions and Innovations Targeting Dogs and Cats
Next Article in Special Issue
Can a Red Wood-Ant Nest Be Associated with Fault-Related CH4 Micro-Seepage? A Case Study from Continuous Short-Term In-Situ Sampling
Previous Article in Journal
Exploring the Framing of Animal Farming and Meat Consumption: On the Diversity of Topics Used and Qualitative Patterns in Selected Demographic Contexts
Previous Article in Special Issue
Understanding Animal Detection of Precursor Earthquake Sounds
Article Menu
Issue 2 (February) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Animals 2018, 8(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani8020018

Offshore Earthquakes Do Not Influence Marine Mammal Stranding Risk on the Washington and Oregon Coasts

1
Department of Life Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, East Rd, Cambridge CB1 1PT, UK
2
School of Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 22 September 2017 / Revised: 20 December 2017 / Accepted: 8 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Behavior and Natural Disasters)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [2975 KB, uploaded 29 January 2018]   |  

Abstract

The causes of marine mammals stranding on coastal beaches are not well understood, but may relate to topography, currents, wind, water temperature, disease, toxic algal blooms, and anthropogenic activity. Offshore earthquakes are a source of intense sound and disturbance and could be a contributing factor to stranding probability. We tested the hypothesis that the probability of marine mammal stranding events on the coasts of Washington and Oregon, USA is increased by the occurrence of offshore earthquakes in the nearby Cascadia subduction zone. The analysis carried out here indicated that earthquakes are at most, a very minor predictor of either single, or large (six or more animals) stranding events, at least for the study period and location. We also tested whether earthquakes inhibit stranding and again, there was no link. Although we did not find a substantial association of earthquakes with strandings in this study, it is likely that there are many factors influencing stranding of marine mammals and a single cause is unlikely to be responsible. Analysis of a subset of data for which detailed descriptions were available showed that most live stranded animals were pups, calves, or juveniles, and in the case of dead stranded mammals, the commonest cause of death was trauma, disease, and emaciation. View Full-Text
Keywords: marine mammal; mass stranding; stranding; cetacean; earthquakes; seismic activity marine mammal; mass stranding; stranding; cetacean; earthquakes; seismic activity
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Grant, R.A.; Savirina, A.; Hoppitt, W. Offshore Earthquakes Do Not Influence Marine Mammal Stranding Risk on the Washington and Oregon Coasts. Animals 2018, 8, 18.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Animals EISSN 2076-2615 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top