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Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010
Bureau of Laboratory Science, Massachusetts Department of Public Health, 305 South Street, Jamaica Plain, Boston, MA 02130, USA
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Received: 26 September 2011; in revised form: 16 November 2011 / Accepted: 16 November 2011 / Published: 18 November 2011
Abstract: We analyzed signs occurring among domestic and wild terrestrial animal species infected with raccoon rabies variant virus (RRV) in Massachusetts, 1992–2010. The clinical sign of aggression was significantly associated with rabid stray cats (odds ratio, OR = 2.3) and RRV affected major wild terrestrial animal species individually, which included raccoons (OR = 2.8), skunks (OR = 8.0), gray foxes (OR = 21.3), red foxes (OR = 10.4), woodchucks (OR = 4.7) and coyotes (OR = 27.6). While aggression is a useful predictor of rabies among wild animals, combinations of other signs such as ataxia, disorientation, and salivation are useful predictors of rabies among domestic animals. Pets reported with multiple clinical signs had significantly higher rabies positive testing result than those reported with single clinical sign (p < 0.001). The result suggested the importance of avoiding aggressive terrestrial wild animals and giving additional attention to pets with multiple clinical signs.
Keywords: raccoon rabies variant virus (RRV); clinical signs; rabid animals; aggression
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Wang, X.; Werner, B.G.; Smole, S.; Pani, V.; Han, L.L. Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010. Animals 2011, 1, 396-401.
Wang X, Werner BG, Smole S, Pani V, Han LL. Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010. Animals. 2011; 1(4):396-401.
Wang, Xingtai; Werner, Barbara G.; Smole, Sandra; Pani, Vasil; Han, Linda L. 2011. "Signs Observed Among Animal Species Infected with Raccoon Rabies Variant Virus, Massachusetts, USA, 1992–2010." Animals 1, no. 4: 396-401.