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Microorganisms 2018, 6(3), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms6030088

The Protean Acremonium. A. sclerotigenum/egyptiacum: Revision, Food Contaminant, and Human Disease

1
Sporometrics, 219 Dufferin St. Ste. 20C, Toronto, ON M6K 1Y9 Canada
2
Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5T 3M7, Canada
3
Australian National Herbarium, National Research Collections Australia, CSIRO-NCMI, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
4
Unitat de Micologia, Facultat de Medicina i Ciencies de la Salut and IISPV, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Reus, 43201 Tarragona, Spain
5
Department of Plant Pathology, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA
6
Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, P.O. Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands
7
Division of Dermatology, Department of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5G 2C4, Canada
8
Mediprobe Research Inc., London, ON N5X 2P1, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 June 2018 / Revised: 12 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 August 2018 / Published: 16 August 2018
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Abstract

Acremonium is known to be regularly isolated from food and also to be a cause of human disease. Herein, we resolve some sources of confusion that have strongly hampered the accurate interpretation of these and other isolations. The recently designated type species of the genus Acremonium, A. alternatum, is known only from a single isolate, but it is the closest known relative of what may be one of the planet’s most successful organisms, Acremonium sclerotigenum/egyptianum, shown herein to be best called by its earliest valid name, A. egyptiacum. The sequencing of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions, actin genes, or both for 72 study isolates within this group allowed the full range of morphotypes and ITS barcode types to be elucidated, along with information on temperature tolerance and habitat. The results showed that nomenclatural confusion and frequent misidentifications facilitated by morphotaxonomy, along with misidentified early sequence deposits, have obscured the reality that this species is, in many ways, the definitive match of the historical concept of Acremonium: a pale orange or dull greenish-coloured monophialidic hyphomycete, forming cylindrical, ellipsoidal, or obovoid conidia in sticky heads or obovoid conidia in dry chains, and acting ecologically as a soil organism, marine organism, plant pathogen, plant endophyte, probable insect pathogen, human opportunistic pathogen, food contaminant, probable dermatological communicable disease agent, and heat-tolerant spoilage organism. Industrially, it is already in exploratory use as a producer of the antibiotic ascofuranone, active against trypanosomes, cryptosporidia, and microsporidia, and additional applications are in development. The genus-level clarification of the phylogeny of A. egyptiacum shows other historic acremonia belong to separate genera, and two are here described, Parasarocladium for the Acremonium radiatum complex and Kiflimonium for the Acremonium curvulum complex. View Full-Text
Keywords: Hypocreales; biodeterioration; Bionectriaceae; Acremonium; Acremonium sclerotigenum; Acremonium egyptianum Hypocreales; biodeterioration; Bionectriaceae; Acremonium; Acremonium sclerotigenum; Acremonium egyptianum
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Summerbell, R.C.; Gueidan, C.; Guarro, J.; Eskalen, A.; Crous, P.W.; Gupta, A.K.; Gené, J.; Cano-Lira, J.F.; van Iperen, A.; Starink, M.; Scott, J.A. The Protean Acremonium. A. sclerotigenum/egyptiacum: Revision, Food Contaminant, and Human Disease. Microorganisms 2018, 6, 88.

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