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Microorganisms 2017, 5(3), 59; doi:10.3390/microorganisms5030059

Effect of Environmental Factors on Intra-Specific Inhibitory Activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum

Tasmanian Institute of Agriculture, Food Safety Centre, University of Tasmania, Private Bag 54, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia
Current address: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 6000 C&E Trail, Lacombe, AB T4L 1W1, Canada.
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Received: 26 June 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 14 September 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response of Microbial Communities to Environmental Changes)
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Abstract

Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is frequently associated with foods having extended shelf-life due to its inhibitory activity to other bacteria. The quantification of such inhibition interactions affected by various environmental factors is limited. This study investigated the effect of environmental factors relevant to vacuum-packaged beef on inhibition between two model isolates of C. maltaromaticum, D0h and D8c, specifically D8c sensitivity to D0h inhibition and D0h inhibitor production. The effects of temperature (−1, 7, 15, 25 °C), atmosphere (aerobic and anaerobic), pH (5.5, 6, 6.5), lactic acid (0, 25, 50 mM) and glucose (0, 0.56, 5.55 mM) on D8c sensitivity (diameter of an inhibition zone) were measured. The effects of pH, glucose, lactic acid and atmosphere on D0h inhibitor production were measured at 25 °C. Sensitivity of D8c was the highest at 15 °C, under aerobic atmosphere, at higher concentrations of undissociated lactic acid and glucose, and at pH 5.5 (p < 0.001). pH significantly affected D0h inhibitor production (p < 0.001), which was the highest at pH 6.5. The effect of lactic acid depended upon pH level; at relatively low pH (5.5), lactic acid decreased the production rate (arbitrary inhibition unit (AU)/mL/h). This study provides a quantitative description of intra-species interactions, studied in in vitro environments that are relevant to vacuum-packaged beef. View Full-Text
Keywords: Carnobacterium maltaromaticum; vacuum-packaged beef; intra-specific; bacterial interactions; inhibitory activity; pH; lactic acid; glucose; atmosphere; temperature Carnobacterium maltaromaticum; vacuum-packaged beef; intra-specific; bacterial interactions; inhibitory activity; pH; lactic acid; glucose; atmosphere; temperature
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Zhang, P.; Kaur, M.; Bowman, J.P.; Ratkowsky, D.A.; Tamplin, M. Effect of Environmental Factors on Intra-Specific Inhibitory Activity of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 59.

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