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Microorganisms 2017, 5(2), 25; doi:10.3390/microorganisms5020025

Microbial Diversity in Extreme Marine Habitats and Their Biomolecules

Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (C.N.R.), Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry (I.C.B.), Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078 Pozzuoli, (Na), Italy
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Academic Editor: Martin von Bergen
Received: 3 March 2017 / Revised: 2 May 2017 / Accepted: 11 May 2017 / Published: 16 May 2017
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Abstract

Extreme marine environments have been the subject of many studies and scientific publications. For many years, these environmental niches, which are characterized by high or low temperatures, high-pressure, low pH, high salt concentrations and also two or more extreme parameters in combination, have been thought to be incompatible to any life forms. Thanks to new technologies such as metagenomics, it is now possible to detect life in most extreme environments. Starting from the discovery of deep sea hydrothermal vents up to the study of marine biodiversity, new microorganisms have been identified, and their potential uses in several applied fields have been outlined. Thermophile, halophile, alkalophile, psychrophile, piezophile and polyextremophile microorganisms have been isolated from these marine environments; they proliferate thanks to adaptation strategies involving diverse cellular metabolic mechanisms. Therefore, a vast number of new biomolecules such as enzymes, polymers and osmolytes from the inhabitant microbial community of the sea have been studied, and there is a growing interest in the potential returns of several industrial production processes concerning the pharmaceutical, medical, environmental and food fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: biodiversity; extreme habitats; extremophiles; enzymes; polymers; osmolytes biodiversity; extreme habitats; extremophiles; enzymes; polymers; osmolytes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Poli, A.; Finore, I.; Romano, I.; Gioiello, A.; Lama, L.; Nicolaus, B. Microbial Diversity in Extreme Marine Habitats and Their Biomolecules. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 25.

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