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Microorganisms 2016, 4(4), 45; doi:10.3390/microorganisms4040045

Pb2+ Effects on Growth, Lipids, and Protein and DNA Profiles of the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermus Thermophilus

1
Council National Research (C.N.R), Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry (ICB), via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078, Italy
2
Department of Sciences and Technologies Parthenope, University of Naples, Centro Direzionale-Isola C4, Naples 80143, Italy
3
Council National Research (C.N.R), Institute of Food Science (ISA), via Roma, 64, Avellino 83100, Italy
4
Council National Research (C.N.R), Institute of Applied Sciences and Intelligent Systems (ISASI), via Campi Flegrei 34, Pozzuoli 80078, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Om V. Singh
Received: 14 October 2016 / Revised: 21 November 2016 / Accepted: 28 November 2016 / Published: 6 December 2016
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Abstract

Extremophiles are organisms able to thrive in extreme environmental conditions and some of them show the ability to survive high doses of heavy metals thanks to defensive mechanisms provided by primary and secondary metabolic products, i.e., extremolytes, lipids, and extremozymes. This is why there is a growing scientific and industrial interest in the use of thermophilic bacteria in a host of tasks, from the environmental detoxification of heavy metal to industrial activities, such as bio-machining and bio-metallurgy. In this work Thermus thermophilus was challenged against increasing Pb2+ concentrations spanning from 0 to 300 ppm in order to ascertain the sensitiveness of this bacteria to the Pb environmental pollution and to give an insight on its heavy metal resistance mechanisms. Analysis of growth parameters, enzyme activities, protein profiles, and lipid membrane modifications were carried out. In addition, genotyping analysis of bacteria grown in the presence of Pb2+, using random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR and DNA melting evaluation, were also performed. A better knowledge of the response of thermophilic bacteria to the different pollutants, as heavy metals, is necessary for optimizing their use in remediation or decontamination processes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Pb2+ contamination; lead toxicity; thermophilic bacteria; Thermus thermophilus; Pb2+ resistance; lipids; protein profile; DNA melting Pb2+ contamination; lead toxicity; thermophilic bacteria; Thermus thermophilus; Pb2+ resistance; lipids; protein profile; DNA melting
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Nicolaus, B.; Poli, A.; Di Donato, P.; Romano, I.; Laezza, G.; Gioiello, A.; Ulgiati, S.; Fratianni, F.; Nazzaro, F.; Orlando, P.; Dumontet, S. Pb2+ Effects on Growth, Lipids, and Protein and DNA Profiles of the Thermophilic Bacterium Thermus Thermophilus. Microorganisms 2016, 4, 45.

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