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Microorganisms 2015, 3(4), 641-666; doi:10.3390/microorganisms3040641

The Gut Microbiota as a Therapeutic Target in IBD and Metabolic Disease: A Role for the Bile Acid Receptors FXR and TGR5

1
Nutricia Research, 3584 CT, Utrecht, The Netherlands
2
Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, 6703 HB, Wageningen, The Netherlands
3
Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Carl Gordon Johnston
Received: 28 August 2015 / Accepted: 1 October 2015 / Published: 10 October 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Host-Gut Microbiota Metabolic Interactions)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [733 KB, uploaded 10 October 2015]   |  

Abstract

The gut microbiota plays a crucial role in regulating many physiological systems of the host, including the metabolic and immune system. Disturbances in microbiota composition are increasingly correlated with disease; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that changes in microbiota composition directly affect the metabolism of bile salts. Next to their role in digestion of dietary fats, bile salts function as signaling molecules for bile salt receptors such as Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and G protein-coupled bile acid receptor (TGR5). Complementary to their role in metabolism, FXR and TGR5 are shown to play a role in intestinal homeostasis and immune regulation. This review presents an overview of evidence showing that changes in bile salt pool and composition due to changes in gut microbial composition contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and metabolic disease, possibly through altered activation of TGR5 and FXR. We further discuss how dietary interventions, such as pro- and synbiotics, may be used to treat metabolic disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) through normalization of bile acid dysregulation directly or indirectly through normalization of the intestinal microbiota. View Full-Text
Keywords: gut microbiota; dysbiosis; FXR; TGR5; bile acid dysregulation; inflammatory bowel disease; metabolic disease; probiotics gut microbiota; dysbiosis; FXR; TGR5; bile acid dysregulation; inflammatory bowel disease; metabolic disease; probiotics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baars, A.; Oosting, A.; Knol, J.; Garssen, J.; van Bergenhenegouwen, J. The Gut Microbiota as a Therapeutic Target in IBD and Metabolic Disease: A Role for the Bile Acid Receptors FXR and TGR5. Microorganisms 2015, 3, 641-666.

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