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Actuators 2016, 5(1), 2; doi:10.3390/act5010002

Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals

1
Materials Science and Technology Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA
2
Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
3
Survivability, Structure and Materials Department, Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bethesda, Carderock Division, Bethesda, MD 20817, USA
4
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, NJ 08028, USA
5
Sensors and Sonar Systems Department, Naval Undersea Warfare Center Newport, Newport, RI 02841, USA
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kenji Uchino
Received: 11 November 2015 / Revised: 16 December 2015 / Accepted: 25 December 2015 / Published: 30 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Piezoelectric Actuators)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1875 KB, uploaded 30 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Recent advances in phase transition transduction enabled the design of a non-resonant broadband mechanical energy harvester that is capable of delivering an energy density per cycle up to two orders of magnitude larger than resonant cantilever piezoelectric type generators. This was achieved in a [011] oriented and poled domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal, mechanically biased to a state just below the ferroelectric rhombohedral (FR)-ferroelectric orthorhombic (FO) phase transformation. Therefore, a small variation in an input parameter, e.g., electrical, mechanical, or thermal will generate a large output due to the significant polarization change associated with the transition. This idea was extended in the present work to design a non-resonant, multi-domain magnetoelectric composite hybrid harvester comprised of highly magnetostrictive alloy, [Fe81.4Ga18.6 (Galfenol) or TbxDy1-xFe2 (Terfenol-D)], and lead indium niobate–lead magnesium niobate–lead titanate (PIN-PMN-PT) domain engineered relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. A small magnetic field applied to the coupled device causes the magnetostrictive element to expand, and the resulting stress forces the phase change in the relaxor ferroelectric single crystal. We have demonstrated high energy conversion in this magnetoelectric device by triggering the FR-FO transition in the single crystal by a small ac magnetic field in a broad frequency range that is important for multi-domain hybrid energy harvesting devices. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy harvesting; magnetoelectric; inter-ferroelectric phase transformation; broadband; low frequency; multi-domain energy harvesting; magnetoelectric; inter-ferroelectric phase transformation; broadband; low frequency; multi-domain
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Finkel, P.; Pérez Moyet, R.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Restorff, J.; Kosior, J.; Staruch, M.; Stace, J.; Amin, A. Non-Resonant Magnetoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Phase Transformation in Relaxor Ferroelectric Single Crystals. Actuators 2016, 5, 2.

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