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Actuators 2015, 4(4), 336-352; doi:10.3390/act4040336

What Is an Artificial Muscle? A Systemic Approach.

1
Institut National de Sciences Appliquées, University of Toulouse, Campus de Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse, France
2
LAAS/CNRS, 7 avenue du Colonel Roche, 31400 Toulouse, France
Academic Editor: Delbert Tesar
Received: 24 October 2015 / Revised: 28 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 December 2015 / Published: 11 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [696 KB, uploaded 11 December 2015]   |  

Abstract

Artificial muscles define a large category of actuators we propose to analyze in a systemic framework by considering any artificial muscle as an open-loop stable system for any output which represents an artificial muscle dimension resulting from its “contraction”, understood in a broad meaning. This approach makes it possible to distinguish the artificial muscle from other actuators and to specify an original model for a linear artificial muscle, according to the theory of linear systems. Such a linear artificial muscle concept exhibits a constant stiffness independent on its control value. It is shown that a biomimetic actuator, made of two antagonist artificial muscles, requires that artificial muscle static characteristic, even in its most simplified form, is non-linear in the meaning of systems theory, to make possible the control of both actuator position and stiffness. However, we also attempt to show that a linear viscous damping can be a practical way for the dynamic behavior of the artificial muscle to be in relatively good accordance with the so-called Hill curve, interpreted as the dynamic characteristic linking the maximum contraction velocity of the artificial muscle to varying loads lifted against gravity. View Full-Text
Keywords: artificial muscle; biomimetic actuator; actuator classification artificial muscle; biomimetic actuator; actuator classification
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Tondu, B. What Is an Artificial Muscle? A Systemic Approach.. Actuators 2015, 4, 336-352.

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