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Pathogens 2018, 7(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens7030063

Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Epigenetic Pathogenesis of Viral-Associated Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinomas and Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphomas

1
Cancer Epigenetics Laboratory, Department of Clinical Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sir YK Pao Center for Cancer and Li Ka Shing Institute of Health Sciences, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
2
Institute of Digestive Disease and State Key Laboratory of Digestive Diseases, Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
3
School of Cancer Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2018 / Revised: 13 July 2018 / Accepted: 17 July 2018 / Published: 18 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Topics in Epstein-Barr virus-Associated Diseases)
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Abstract

Cancer genome studies of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated tumors, including lymphoepithelioma-like carcinomas (LELC) of nasopharyngeal (NPC), gastric (EBVaGC) and lung tissues, and natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL), reveal a unique feature of genomic alterations with fewer gene mutations detected than other common cancers. It is known now that epigenetic alterations play a critical role in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated tumors. As an oncogenic virus, EBV establishes its latent and lytic infections in B-lymphoid and epithelial cells, utilizing hijacked cellular epigenetic machinery. EBV-encoded oncoproteins modulate cellular epigenetic machinery to reprogram viral and host epigenomes, especially in the early stage of infection, using host epigenetic regulators. The genome-wide epigenetic alterations further inactivate a series of tumor suppressor genes (TSG) and disrupt key cellular signaling pathways, contributing to EBV-associated cancer initiation and progression. Profiling of genome-wide CpG methylation changes (CpG methylome) have revealed a unique epigenotype of global high-grade methylation of TSGs in EBV-associated tumors. Here, we have summarized recent advances of epigenetic alterations in EBV-associated tumors (LELCs and NKTCL), highlighting the importance of epigenetic etiology in EBV-associated tumorigenesis. Epigenetic study of these EBV-associated tumors will discover valuable biomarkers for their early detection and prognosis prediction, and also develop effective epigenetic therapeutics for these cancers. View Full-Text
Keywords: Epstein-Barr virus; CpG methylation; epigenetics; nasopharyngeal; gastric cancer; lung cancer; natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma; pathogenesis Epstein-Barr virus; CpG methylation; epigenetics; nasopharyngeal; gastric cancer; lung cancer; natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma; pathogenesis
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Li, L.; Ma, B.B.Y.; Chan, A.T.C.; Chan, F.K.L.; Murray, P.; Tao, Q. Epstein-Barr Virus-Induced Epigenetic Pathogenesis of Viral-Associated Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinomas and Natural Killer/T-Cell Lymphomas. Pathogens 2018, 7, 63.

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